High Availability

Report
OpenStack High Availability
Jakub Pavlik
About me
Jakub Pavlík
• Cloud Platform Engineer
• 3 years in Cloud
• 2 years in OpenStack
High Availability vs. Disaster Recovery
High Availability = fault detection & correction procedures to maximize
availability of critical services and applications, often in an automated
fashion.
Disaster Recovery = process of preparing for recovery or continuation of
technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a natural or
human-induced disaster.
High Availability ≠ Disaster Recovery!
Four types of HA in an OpenStack Cloud
Compute Controller
Network Controller
Database
Message Queue
Storage
....
Physical nodes
Physical network
Physical storage
Hypervisor
Host OS
….
OpenStack
Control services
Applications
Service Resiliency
QoS Cost
Transparency
Data Integrity
…..
VMs
OpenStack Compute
Physical infrastructure
Virtual Machine
Virtual Network
Virtual Storage
VM Mobility
…
Physical Infrastructure
tcp cloud
VPC
Hardware
Switch 1
Passthru 1
Passthru 2
Switch 2
Passthru 1
Passthru 2
168 cores 3,46GHz ,336 threads
agregation ¼ : 1344 vCPU
168 cores 2,67GHz ,336 threads
agregation ¼ : 1344 vCPU
2688 GB RAM
28 x 10GE ports
1792 GB RAM
28 x 10GE ports
SAN 1
Controller 1
SAN 2
Controller 2
SAN 1
Controller 1
SAN 2
Controller 2
OpenStack Control services
OpenStack modules – TCP VPC
OpenStack High Availability Concepts
Stateless services
• There is no dependency between requests
• For example APIs: Nova, Keystone, Glance, Cinder, etc.
Stateful services
• An action typically compromises multiple requests
• For example: MySQL, RabbitMQ, etc.
Active/Passive
• Redundant instances of stateless services are load balanced
• For Stateful services a replacement resource can be brought
online
Active/Active
• Redundant instances of stateless services are load balanced
• Stateful services are managed in such a way that services are
redundant, and that all instances have and identical state.
Corosync, Pacemaker and HAProxy
Corosync
• Totem single-ring ordering and membership
protocol
• UDP and InfiniBand based messaging, quorum,
and cluster membership to Pacemaker
Pacemaker
• High availability and load balancing stack for the
Linux platform.
• Interacts with applications through Resource
Agents (RA)
HAProxy
• Load Balancing and Proxying for HTTP and TCP
Applications
• Works over multiple connections
• Used to load balance API services
MySQL Galera
Synchronous multi-master cluster technology for MySQL/InnoDB
• MySQL patched for wsrep
(Write Set REPlication)
• Active/active multi-master
topology
• Read and write to any cluster
node
• True parallel replication, in row
level
• No slave lag or integrity issues
Sample OpenStack HA architecture
Stateful
• Cinder Volume
• Neutron L3, DHCP agents
• Ceilometer central agent
• RabbitMQ
Stateless
• Neutron Server
• OpenStack APIs
• Apache web server
• Nova Scheduler
• Cinder Scheduler
Neutron agents
(Active)
Neutron agents
(Hot Standby)
VMs – Compute nodes
VMs HA – two layers
Storage
• Shared storage filesystem – file disks (qcow2, vmdk, vhv)
• Block storage
Network
• Vanilla Neutron L3 agent (OpenVSwitch, Linux Bridge)
• Vendor plugins - SDN controller
No vSphere Style HA with KVM
Non-Shared/Shared Storage filesystem
Shared Storage
• Live migration – just RAM memory
• Hypervisor Evacuation – The instance will be booted from
same disk and data will be preserved
• CEPH, Gluster, NFS, Samba, GFS
Non-Shared Storage
• Block Live Migration – disk and RAM
• Hypervisor Evacuation – the instance will be booted from a
new disk, but will preserve the configuration, e.g. id, name,
uuid
• Standard filesystem EXT4, etc.
Block Storage - Cinder
•
•
•
•
Instance boots from volume
iSCSI/FC direct mapping to instance
Enable Live Migration
Cinder Backends
• LVM Driver
• Default linux iSCSI server
• Vendor software plugins
• Gluster, CEPH, VMware VMDK driver
• Vendor storage plugins
• EMC VNX, IBM Storwize, Solid Fire, etc.
Networking - Vanilla Neutron L3 agent
Problems
• Routing on Linux server (max. bandwith approximately 3-4
Gbits)
• Limited distribution between more network nodes
• East-West and North-South communication through network
node
High Availability
• Pacemaker&Corosync
• Keepalived VRRP
• DVR + VRRP – should be in Juno release
Networking – Vendor SDN Controller plugins
Examples
• Juniper OpenContrail, VMware NSX, SDN PLUMgrid
Advantages against Neutron L3 agent
• North-South communication on network devices (iBGP,
MLPSoverGRE)
• East-West communication directly between compute nodes
• Higher bandwidth (9.7 Gbits per 10Gbits port)
High Availability
• iBGP peering into two routers
• Native HA implemented inside of network devices
OpenStack HA
TCP VPC
VIP
Bond Interface
Pacemaker
Corosync
HAProxy
Contrail Config
with Analytics &
WebUI
HAProxy
Pacemaker
Corosync
Contrail Config
with Analytics &
WebUI
Cassandra
Openstack
Controller
RabbitMQ
Cassandra
Openstack
Controller
MySQL
Contrail
Database
Zookee
per
Contrail
Database
Zookee
per
Zookee
per
Cassandra
MySQL
Contrail Config
with Analytics &
WebUI
Contrail
Control
Contrail
Control
Contrail
Database
HAProxy
RabbitMQ
GALERA
Openstack
Controller
MySQL
RabbitMQ
TCP Virtual Private Cloud
HA methods - vendors
Vendor
Cluster/Replication Technique
Characteristics
RackSpace
Keepalived, HAProxy, VRRP,
DRBD
Automatic - Chef
Red Hat
Pacemaker, Corosync, Galera
Manual
installation/Foreman
Cisco
Keepalived, HAProxy, Galera
Manual installation,
at least 3 controller
tcp cloud
Pacemaker, Corosync, HAProxy,
Galera, Contrail
Automatic Salt-Stack
deployment
Mirantis
Pacemaker, Corosync, HAProxy
Galera
Automatic - Puppet
Thank you for your attention!

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