Presentation ISFM Ronner Franke vd Brand de Wolf Giller

Report
Sustainable intensification of farming
systems through legume technologies:
Lessons learnt for expansion of N2Africa
to new countries
Esther Ronner1, Linus C. Franke1, Greta J. van
den Brand1, Judith J. de Wolf2, Ken E. Giller1
1 Wageningen
University; 2 CIAT Zimbabwe
Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa
Outline
• Introduction
• Lessons learnt and new approaches:
– From proof of concept to understanding variability
– Tailoring of technologies to farm types
– Dissemination approaches
• Conclusions
Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa
Introduction – The N2Africa project
• ‘Putting nitrogen fixation to work for
smallholder farmers growing legume
crops in Africa’
• Focus on cowpea, soybean, common
bean and groundnut
• Funds: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
and Howard G. Buffet Foundation
• Led by Wageningen University; main
partners IITA and CIAT-TSBF
• Originally eight countries in 2009
• Extension to Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda,
Liberia, Sierra Leone and DR Congo
Introduction – New countries, new approach?
‘Development to research’
Research
M&E
D&D
• Dissemination and delivery
are the core
• Monitoring & evaluation
provides the learning
• Research analyses
and feeds back
From proof of concept... (1)
• Hypothesis in N2Africa: BNF and
legume yields determined by
interaction of:
(GL x GR) x E x M
• Detailed agronomy trials
in limited number of sites
to test this concept
From proof of concept... (2)
Soybean grain yield (kg/ha)
2000
- inoc
+ inoc
1500
1000
500
0
Soybean input trial (TGx1740-2F); Nyanza, Western Kenya; long rains 2011
(F. Baijukya + team)
From proof of concept... (3)
Soybean input trial; Murehwa, Zimbabwe, season 2010/2011
(T. Mombeyarara + team)
... to understanding variability (1)
• In first year already proof of valuable concept
• But with testing technologies at scale in farmers
fields: huge variability.
• New questions: how to explain this variability?
• More emphasis on analysis of simple, non-replicated
demonstration trials under farmers’ management
... to understanding variability (2)
Control
+ inoculation
+ P-fertilizer
+ P-fert + inoc.
... to understanding variability (3)
Ghana, 2011
… to understanding variability (4)
Time of planting
Soybean
Groundnut
Cowpea
< 15 July
1899
1403
731
July 15-31
1561
1015
2040
935
876
1126
August
Soybean yield category
Time between inoculation and planting
0-500 kg
58 h
>500 kg
18 h
Groundnut yield category
Farm size (ha)
TLU
% female
0-500 kg
6.3
3.6
9.1
500-1000 kg
4.4
2.0
18.2
1000-1500 kg
3.9
2.6
25.0
>1500 kg
2.7
4.8
60.8
Targeting of technologies to farm types (1)
• Factors influencing adoption:
– Not only high crop yields
– Need to fit within farming system (labour availability, tradeoff other crops)
• Need for ‘tailoring of technologies’
– Per agro-ecological zone
– Per region
– Per farm type
Targeting of technologies to farm types (2)
Country
Kenya
Rwanda
Nigeria
Malawi
Cereal Groundnut
Maize-bush bean
Soybean Climbing beans
intercrop
Grain yield (t/ha)
2,44
2,89
LUE (kg/h)
1,18
1,22
Grain yield (t/ha)
1,60
1,72
LUE (kg/h)
0,55
0,57
Grain yield (t/ha)
4,48
1,95
1,83
LUE (kg/h)
6,40
2,13
3,21
Grain yield (t/ha)
2,45
1,24
LUE (kg/h)
2,00
0,78
LUE = labour use efficiency
Targeting of technologies to farm types (2)
Country
Kenya
Rwanda
Nigeria
Malawi
Cereal Groundnut
Maize-bush bean
Soybean Climbing beans
intercrop
Grain yield (t/ha)
2,44
2,89
LUE (kg/h)
1,18
1,22
Grain yield (t/ha)
1,60
1,72
LUE (kg/h)
0,55
0,57
Grain yield (t/ha)
4,48
1,95
1,83
LUE (kg/h)
6,40
2,13
3,21
Grain yield (t/ha)
2,45
1,24
LUE (kg/h)
2,00
0,78
LUE = labour use efficiency
Targeting of technologies to farm types (2)
Country
Kenya
Rwanda
Nigeria
Malawi
Cereal Groundnut
Maize-bush bean
Soybean Climbing beans
intercrop
Grain yield (t/ha)
2,44
2,89
LUE (kg/h)
1,18
1,22
Grain yield (t/ha)
1,60
1,72
LUE (kg/h)
0,55
0,57
Grain yield (t/ha)
4,48
1,95
1,83
LUE (kg/h)
6,40
2,13
3,21
Grain yield (t/ha)
2,45
1,24
LUE (kg/h)
2,00
0,78
LUE = labour use efficiency
Dissemination approaches
• Great diversity in opportunities legumes demands
diversity in dissemination approaches
• From uniform lead farmer – satellite farmer
approach to dissemination approaches as part of
research question
• Work along partners in input/ output markets; enable
access to inoculants
Conclusions
• More emphasis on understanding variability yields in
farmers’ fields – start with demonstration trials at
scale; detailed agronomy trials for specific issues
• Start with characterization of farming systems and
farm types – ex ante impact assessment of how
legumes fit best within a particular farming system
• Adjust dissemination approaches, seed systems and
extension messages accordingly
For updates see
www.N2Africa.org
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