Flashcard Warm-up Microorganisms Very tiny (require a microscope to be seen), unicellular organisms that can be found everywhere! Many are pathogens (cause disease) while others are beneficial Examples: bacteria, viruses, protists and fungi (yeast) Virus a small infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a living cell (host) Made of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a protein coat (capsid) MICROORGANISMS ORGANISMS NOT VISIBLE WITHOUT A MICROSCOPE Virus: not living, smaller than bacteria Bacteria: prokaryotic, unicellular Protists: algae and protozoa Fungi: yeast Pathogen: a disease causing organism Virus: Structure: a protein coat (capsid), and DNA or RNA Lytic cycle: reproductive cycle of a virus Steps of Lytic Cycle: 1. Attaches to host cell, shape specific (shape determines who they invade) 2. Injects DNA or RNA into host cell 3. Copies of viral DNA and capsid are made 4. Cell ruptures (lysis) and host cell dies 5. new viruses attach to neighboring cells or particles released to another host cell Lysogenic cycle: You sneaky virus! Virus enters cell and remains dormant (resting) then goes through the lytic cycle (HIV virus, herpes virus) Types of Viruses: HIV: a retrovirus (has RNA), infects T cells, transmitted through body fluids (except saliva) Influenza: the flu, infects respiratory cells Smallpox: has been eradicated ! Thanks to a vaccine! Infects lymph nodes, lungs, then spreads to other body parts. Obvious sign (skin pustules) Other Disease Causing Organisms Bacteria: Steptococcus: strep throat Protists that causes disease Plasmodia: causes malaria, commensal relationship with mosquito Vector: an organism that can transmit the disease without getting it (like the mosquito) 1. infected mosquito bites human and plasmodia enters blood stream 2. plasmodia invade liver and red bloods cells , multiple rapidly 3. Red blood cells rupture, and invade 4. plasmodia develop into male and females which can infect mosquitos 5. reproduction takes place in mosquitos intestines Malaria Symptoms: Headache, shaking, chills, fever Fungi that cause disease Candida: yeast that normally lives in our body and starts to multiply rapidly Examples: yeast infections, oral thrush in babies, or kidney infections Ticket Out the Door: 1. In order for a virus to reproduce it must have a _______ cell. 2. Put the following steps for the LYTIC cycle in order. A. Cell ruptures (lysis) and host cell dies B. Attaches to host cell, shape specific (shape determines who they invade) C. new viruses attach to neighboring cells or particles released to another host cell D. Copies of viral DNA and capside are made E. Injects DNA or RNA into host cell 3. A mosquito is the vector (organism transmitting) that carries the ____________ that causes malaria. 4. True or False. A microscope is not required to see all microorganisms. http://health.howstuffworks.com/humanbody/systems/immune/immune-system5.htm Flashcard Warm-up Flashcard Warm-up Antigens (the bad guys) a substance/molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system Antibodies (the good guys) Proteins produced by immune system cells that fight off the antigens (bad guys) So, how does our immune system fight off pathogens? Important words to know: Antigen: term to describe a foreign invader (like bacteria, viruses, etc.) AKA the bad guys! ANTIBODIES are the good guys! The “bad guys” come in all sorts of sizes and shapes! The “good guys” shapes match the bad guys! Who are the good Guys? Who are the bad guys? T-cells and B-cells are both WHITE BLOOD CELLS! T-cells: initiate the immune response by activating B-cells or destroy the pathogen B-cells A. produce ANTIBODIES, proteins that are specifically shaped to antigens B. memory B cells- remember the correct antibody to protect you the second time you are exposed Here’s how it works: Active Immunity: YOUR Immune system responds to foreign invaders 1. antigens have entered body before and your memory B cells already have the antibodies 2. Vaccines: injected with weak or dead portion, memory B cells make antibodies BIG IDEA!!!! Your body has already made the antibodies to fight this off! Passive Immunity: is acquired! Antibodies are passed from one person to another Examples: Mother to child (breast milk, placenta) Injected serum containing antibodies (anti-venom) Medicines: Antibiotics: treat only BACTERIAL infections Antiviral: interfere with the life cycle of a virus Anti-fungal: kill the fungus (tough actin’ TINACTIN) for athletes foot Pain killers: treat only symptoms Health: a balanced diet provides chemicals for immune response A. poor nutrition can lead to protein deficiency--B. Malnutrition: leads to a weak immune system (which means your body can’t make the antibodies) Flashcard Warm-up Active Immunity results when exposure to a disease organism triggers the immune system to produce antibodies to that disease. Example: vaccinations Passive Immunity The short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal. Example: use of antivenin, a mother breast feeding her baby Case Questions: Operation Antibody Posters Case 1: Before the start of the flu season, you have a flu shot. A month later you come down with the flu. What happened? Case 2: Dangling your legs in the ocean over the side of your raft, you feel a sharp sting on your foot. You look down and discover a jellyfish. Soon your foot feels painful. It is swollen and red to touch. What is happening? Case 3: You are an immunologist and have a patient who just received a kidney transplant. How do you explain to him that he must be given immunosuppressant drugs? Case 4: As a child you received an emergency shot of antivenin to treat snakebite. The drug was horse serum with antibodies. The doctor told you that these procedures could never be repeated or boosted. Why? Case 5: Five cases of measles suddenly appear at your high school. The school nurse is rechecking immunization records. What could be a possible explanation for this outbreak? (Hint: there are three possible scenarios) Case 6: You are hurrying to finish the Biology Honors Project and ….. oops, a splinter from your display ends up in your hand. You pull it out, but later that night your finger becomes swollen and red. A few days later the entire hand is swollen, the pain is intense, and you develop a fever. What’s going on? Case 7: A friend comes to you and tells you they have the HIV virus. They can only recall having unprotected sex ONE time, which was ten years ago. How did this happen? Ticket Out the Door 1. ______ are special proteins produced by B cells that fight off pathogens. 2. ____ cells are like the general of an army, they initiate the immune response and tell the “soldiers” what to do. 3. A mother breast feeding her child is an example of ________ immunity. 4. Receiving a vaccination would be an example of _______ immunity because YOUR body is produced the antibodies.