Glossary Of Usage Warriner’s English Composition and Grammar a, an • These short words are called indefinite articles. They refer to one general group. • Rule: • Use a before words beginning with a consonant sound; use an before words beginning with a vowel sound. • An is used before hour because hour begins with a vowel sound. • Examples: • A woman bought Larry’s car. • Maria was in an accident in her father’s car. accept, except • Rule: • Accept is a verb; it means “to receive.” • Except as a verb means “to leave out”; as a preposition it means “excluding.” • Examples: • I accepted the gift gratefully. • Debbie has a perfect attendance record, if you except the day she stayed home with the flu. • We were busy every evening this week except Tuesday. adapt, adopt • Rule: • Adapt means “to change in order to fit or be more suitable; to adjust.” • Adopt means “to take something and make it one’s own.” • Examples: • When it rained on the day of the senior class picnic, we adapted our plans. • The Broadway play was adapted from a popular television miniseries. • The couple who adopted the baby read many books and adopted some suggestions for infant care. affect, effect • Rule: • Affect is usually a verb; it means “to impress” or “to influence (frequently the mind or feelings.)” • Effect as a verb means “to accomplish, to bring about.” • Effect as a noun means “the result of some action.” • Examples: • Try not to let careless remarks affect you. • The school board effected (brought about) drastic changes in the budget. • The effects (results) of the hurricane were shown on the evening news. Video: http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Examples+of+Affect+Vs.+Effect&Form= VQFRVP#view=detail&mid=BD59B16A8ED6C56ED431BD59B16A8ED6C56ED431 Practice for affect/effect Activity: Complete on your own. Compare with a partner. Vote as a class. Check responses. http://www.towson.edu/ows/_vti_bin/shtml.dll/exerciseaffect2.htm all the farther, all the faster • Rule: • Used informally in some parts of the country to mean “as far as, as fast as.” • Examples: • Dialect: • Thirty miles per hour was all the faster the first airplane could travel. • Standard: • Thirty miles per hour was as fast as the first airplane could travel. allusion, illusion • Rule: • An allusion is a reference to something. • An illusion is a mistaken idea. • Examples: • In her essay she made many allusions to the American pioneers. • The behind-the-scenes report destroyed her illusions of Hollywood. alumni, alumnae • Rule: • Alumni is the plural of alumnus (male graduate). • Alumnae is the plural of alumna (female graduate). • The graduates of a co-educational school are referred to (as a group) as alumni. • Examples: • All of my sisters are alumnae of Adam’s High School. • Both men are alumni of Harvard. • My parents went to their college alumni reunion. amount, number • Rule: • Use amount to refer to a singular word. • Use number to refer to a plural word. • Examples: • The amount of research (singular) on stress is overwhelming. • A number of reports (plural) on stress are available. and etc. • Rule: • Since etc. is an abbreviation of the Latin et cetera, which means “and other things,” you are using and twice when you write “and etc.” • Examples: • The new store in the mall sells DVDs, cameras, radios, video games, etc. and which, but which • Rule: • The expressions and which, but which (and who, but who) should be used only when a which (or who) clause precedes them in the sentence. • Examples: • Nonstandard: Our jazz band was pleased with the audience’s enthusiastic response and which we had not expected before the concert. • Standard: Our jazz band was please with the audience’s response, which was enthusiastic and which we had not expected before the concert. • Standard: Our jazz band was please with the audience’s enthusiastic response, which we had not expected before the concert. anywheres, everywheres, nowheres • Rule: • Use these words and others like them without the final s. • Examples: • I could not find my keys anywhere; I looked everywhere, but they were nowhere in the house. at • Rule: • Do not use at after where. • Examples: • Nonstandard: Where are they living at now? • Standard: Where are they living now? Formative Assessment: • Complete Exercise 1 on your own without using your notes. • Once you have finished, partner up and discuss your answers. You may use your notes as reference at this point. • Each group member must have the right answer AND understand the justification of that answer. • I will be calling on students to tell me the correct answer AND explain why it is the correct answer.