Morphology (review exercises for midterm)

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MORPHOLOGY
(REVIEW EXERCISES)
LI 2013
NATHALIE F. MARTIN
 What you should know:
MORPHOLOGY


(chap. 4, Rowe &
Levine)
Def: Morphology
Morphemes:


Free, bound morphemes
Analysing Word Structure
Root, affix
 Base
 Affix: prefix, suffix, infixes, circumfix


Derivation:
 English
derivational affixes
 Constraints in derivation
 Trees
MORPHOLOGY
(continued)
(chap. 4, Rowe &
Levine)
 What you should know:
 Inflection:
 Inflection in English
 Inflection vs. Derivation
 Compounding:
 Properties of compounds

Other Morphological Phenomenon:

Processes: Compounding, Conversion,
Clipping, Blending, Back-formation,
Acronyms, Onomatopoeia, Eponyms &
Trade names, Derivation, Other word
formation processes, Foreign word
borrowing
TABLE OF CONTENT
 Morphemes
 Lexical Categories
 Compound Words
 Affixation and Trees
 Bound Morphemes: Inflectional or Derivational?
 Word Formation Process
 Overall Review
Morphemes
WORDS: SIMPLE OR COMPLEX?
MORPHEMES: FREE OR BOUND?
Simple or Complex Words/Bound Morphems
Are these words simple or complex?
Circle the bound morphemes.
a. Anyways  Complex -s
b. Forget
Forget Simple
c.
d.
e.
no bm
Undo  Complex,
unTonight
Tonight Complex, no bm
Spleeny
Spleeny Complex, -y
O’Grady, 2009
Free & Bound Morphemes
Put a plus (+) sign between morphemes.
Label each as bound (b) or free (f)
e. Discredit  dis (b) + credit (f)
Using  Use (f) + ing (b)
g. Tricycle  Tri (b) + cycle
h. Delight Delight (f)
i. Justify  Just (f) + ify (b)
f.
Free & Bound Morphemes
Put a plus (+) sign between morphemes.
Label each as bound (b) or free (f)
a. Television
a. Tele (b) + vision (f)
b. Informatory b. In (b) + form (f) + atory (b)
c. Farming
c. Farm (f) + ing (b)
d. Reformation d. Re (b) + form (f) + ation (b)
e. Ranch
e. Ranch (f)
Lexical Categories
Exercise: Word class
Determine the word class of each of the following words.
Is it a content word of a function word?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
Establishment
a
to
lovely
inconvenience
adversely
submit
or
from
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
Noun
Determiner
Preposition
Adjective
Noun
Adverb
Verb
Conjunction
Preposition
Compound Words
REVIEW
Determine the lexical category of these compound word.
a. Makeover
a. VERB
b. Ladybug
b. NOUN
c. Workbook
c. VERB
d. Downcast
d. ADV
e. Firefly
e. NOUN
f.
*Downtrodden f. ADV
ADV = N
NOUN = N
NOUN = N
VERB = Adj
NOUN = N
V
= Adj
Affixation
and Trees
Word Structure – Morphological Trees
 Draw the trees.
a)
b)
Reference: O’Grady & al. (2009)
Word Structure – Morphological Trees
 Draw the tres.
c)
Reference: O’Grady & al. (2009)
Word Structure – Morphological Trees
Draw their tree structure.
Label the root, the base and the affix
Dis
satisfi
d) Dissatisfied
ed
Word Structure – Morphological Trees
Draw their tree structure.
Label the root, the base and the affix
d) Activation
Bound Morphemes:
Inflectional or Derivational?
Looking at the AFFIX:
Inflectional or Derivational?
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
impermeable
plagiarized
plagiarize
Cats
despair
fragility
slowest
1) Derivational prefix
2) Inflectional suffix
3) Derivational suffix
4) Inflectional suffix
5) Derivational prefix
6) Derivational suffix
7) Inflectional suffix
Looking at the AFFIX:
Inflectional or Derivational?
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
premade
undo
whiten
beaten
oxen
slower
teacher
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
Derivational prefix
Derivational prefix
Derivational suffix
Inflectional suffix
Inflectional suffix
Inflectional suffix
Derivational suffix
Looking at the AFFIX:
Inflectional or Derivational?
Place a plus (+) sign between each morpheme
Label each BM as derivational (D) on inflectional (I).
a. Bill’s
a. BILL +
b. Running
b.
c. Player
c.
d. Action
d.
e. Roughest
e.
Comes
g. Friendly
f.
f.
g.
‘S (I)
RUN +
ING (I)
PLAY +
ER (D) *
ACT +
ION (D)
ROUGH + EST (I)
COME +
S (I)
FRIEND + LY (D)
Rowe & Levine, 2012
Looking at the AFFIX:
Inflectional or Derivational?
Place a plus (+) sign between each morpheme
Label each as derivational (D) on inflectional (I).
h. Unfriendly
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
Longer
Loveable
Judgment
Banana
Slowest
Quicker
h. UN (D) + FRIEND + LY (D)
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
LONG +
LOVE +
JUDGE +
BANANA
SLOW +
QUICK +
ER (I)
ABLE (D)
MENT (D)
EST (I)
ER (I)
Rowe & Levine, 2012
Looking at the AFFIX:
Inflectional or Derivational?
Place a plus (+) sign between each morpheme
Label each as derivational (D) on inflectional (I).
o. Unhappy
o. UN (D) +
p. Semicircle
p.
q. Nobody
q.
r. Aaron’s
r.
s. Broken (adj) s.
s. Broken (v)
t.
Happily
u.
t.
HAPPY
SEMI (D) + CIRCLE
NO + BODY
AARON + ‘S (I)
BROKE + EN (D) *
BROKE + EN (I) *
HAPPY + LY (D)
Rowe & Levine, 2012
Word Formation Process
HOW TO NEW WORDS ARE CREATED
New Word Formation Process
 Name all ten word formation processes seen
in class:










Derivation
Compounding
Conversion
Clipping
Blending
Back-formation
Acronyms
Onomatopoeia
Eponyms & Trade names
Foreign word borrowing
SUFFIXOCATING !!!
 What was the word process used for the
word « suffixocating »
Homework - Ex 19, p. 144
a) Automation  automate
a) Backformation
b) Humid  humidifier
b) Derivation
c) Information, entertainment  c) Blending
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
 infotainment
Loveseat  loveseat
d)
Progress  progress
e)
Typographical error  typo
f)
Aerobics, marathon  aerobathon
Act  deactivate
h)
Curve, ball  curve ball
Compounding
Conversion
Clipping
g) Blending
Derivation
i) Compounding
O’Grady, 2009
Homework - Ex 19, p. 144
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)
o)
p)
q)
Perambulator  pram
(the) comb  comb (your hair)
Beef, buffalo  beefalo
Random access memory  RAM
Megabyte  meg
Teleprinter, exchanger  telex
Influenza  flu
GST  Goods and Services Tax
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)
o)
p)
q)
Clipping
Conversion
Blend
Acronym
Clipping
Blend
Clipping
Initialism
O’Grady, 2009
Overall Review
Morphology
Invent a word using this root : VACUUM
1.
2.
3.
4.
by adding a prefix to this base (make sure that there are
no constrains to the combination).
And then adding a suffix.
Draw the structure (tree) of the two words that you have
just created.
What are the lexical categories of these words?
Morphology
Invent a word using this root : WORSHIP
1.
2.
3.
4.
by adding a prefix to this base (make sure that there are
no constrains to the combination).
And then adding a suffix.
Draw the structure (tree) of the two words that you have
just created.
What are the lexical categories of these words?

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