The Structuralist Approach Saussere argues, “language is a complete, self- contained system and should be studied as such.” Structuralism argues we do not need to know the historical influences we do not need to know the biographical history of the author we do need to study the story’s structure In other words… By comparing the different renditions of like elements, we learn what we need to about mindset of author, era, and deeper meaning of the story. Carl Jung early 1900’s, Swiss psychologist rejected tabula rasa (the unformed, featureless mind in the philosophy of John Locke) theory of psychological development evolutionary pressure creates predestined patterns and characteristics of experience = collective unconscious In short… we develop in response to our unique relationship with the collective unconscious we all share Archetypes • situations objects characters Vladimir Propp 1928: The Morphology of the Folk Tale morphology: morph = change ology = the study of What was true for Russia – it turned out – was true for all stories Propp’s Theory is built on four tenants . The functions of characters serve as stable, constant elements in a tale, independent of how and by whom they are fulfilled. The sequence of functions is always identical. All tales are of one type in regard to their structure. (i.e. romantic comedy, tragedy, coming-of-age) The number of functions is limited based on structure. Four Spheres of Construction Introduction: Body of the Story Donor Sequence Hero’s Return Within those spheres… …exist the 31 narratemes Propp defined. For example: Introduction: absentation, interdiction (warning), violation, reconnaissance, delivery, trickery, complicity Body: villainy and the lack, mediation, counteraction, and departure Donor (mentor): testing, reaction, acquisition, guidance, struggle, branding, victory, resolution Return: pursuit, rescue, arrival, claim, task, solution, recognition, exposure, transfiguration, punishment, wedding (ascension) st 1 Sphere-Introduction Steps 1 to 7 introduce the situation and most of the main characters, setting the scene for subsequent adventure. A family member leaves, the main character is warned of impending danger, hero ignores the warning (this is where the villain usually enters), villain goes on reconnaissance looking for something (an advantage), the villain gets the information he/she was looking for and attempts to deceive the victim to gain an edge. The victim is tricked and inadvertently aids the villain. nd 2 Sphere-The Body The main story starts here and extends to the departure of the hero on the main quest. The villain causes harm to the hero’s family, the hero discovers some lack or desire among his/her family and chooses a positive action. The hero then departs on the mission to retrieve what is desired. 3rd Sphere-Donor Sequence In the third sphere, the hero goes in search of a method by which the solution may be reached, gaining the magical agent from the Donor. Note that this in itself may be a complete story. The hero is tested, challenged, or attacked (this is where the mentor shows up); he or she is victorious and is led to the magical object by the mentor (donor); hero does battle with the villain and is branded. The initial lack is resolved. th 4 Sphere-Hero’s Return In the final (and often optional) phase of the storyline, the hero returns home, hopefully uneventfully and to a hero's welcome, although this may not always be the case. Hero is chased home, arrives unrecognized to find a false hero attempting to take his/her place by making false claims, one last task is proposed to the hero and this is resolved, revealing the hero and exposing the poser (okay that’s my word-the false hero), the hero is exalted, the villain punished and the hero marries and ascends the throne. Finally, Characterization 1. deus ex machina (a plot device whereby a seemingly unsolvable problem is suddenly and abruptly solved with the contrived and unexpected intervention of some new event, character, ability, etc.;) an announcement of misfortune or a chance disclosure 2. Motivations (reasons and aims of personages) 3. Forms of appearance of dramatis personae (the flying arrival of a dragon, a chance meeting with the donor) 4. Attributive elements or accessories (witch’s hut, clay leg, hoodie sweatshirt) Heroic types Hero as warrior: A near god-like hero faces physical challenges and external enemies. Odysseus Hero as lover A pure love motivates the hero to complete his quest. Prince Charming Hero as scapegoat Hero suffers for the sake of others. Jesus Christ Transcendent hero The hero of tragedy whose fatal flaw brings about his downfall, but not without achieving some kind of transforming realization or wisdom. Macbeth, Oedipus, Hamlet Romatic/Gothic hero hero/lover with a decidedly dark side. Mr. Rochester in Jane Eyre Proto-feminist hero female heroes The Awakening by Kate Chopin Apocalyptic hero hero who faces the possible destruction of society. Mad Max, in Road Warrior Anti-hero a non-hero, given the vocation of failure, frequently humorous Homer Simpson Defiant anti-hero the opposer of society’s definition of heroism/goodness Heart of Darkness (Apocalypse Now-movie) Unbalanced hero The protagonist who has (or must pretend to have) mental or emotional deficiencies Hamlet, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest The Other-the denied hero the protagonist whose status or essential otherness makes heroism possible Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan The Superheroic Exaggerates the normal proportions of humanity; frequently has divine or supernatural origins. In some sense, the superhero is one apart, someone who does not quite belong, but who is nonetheless needed. Superman Types of Archetypal Journeys The quest for identity The epic journey to find land The quest for vengeance The warrior’s journey to save his people The search for love The search for knowledge The tragic quest of penance or self-denial The fool’s errand The quest to rid the land of danger The grail quest (for human perfection) Your mission: Identify the archetypes in Frankenstein. Is the monster a hero or a villain? Is Frankenstein a hero or a villain? Identify they archetypal journey in Frankenstein.