How did early people adapt to life in North America? Page 20 SETTLING THE AMERICAS – LESSON 1 How did the first Native Americans arrive in North America? Water routes Land routes Why did hunter-gatherers settle in the Americas? They were following game that supplied their food and clothing. Glaciers trapped water to expose the floor of the Bering Sea between Siberia and Alaska. This formed a land bridge called Beringia. Hunter-gatherers crossed a land bridge following animals and picked berries, grasses, and mushrooms. SETTLING THE AMERICAS What are the three main reasons civilizations develop? Farming Surplus Specialization Surpluses in food allowed people time to specialize in trade, building, and pottery. What are two of the earliest civilizations in Mexico? Olmec Maya What led to the decline of the Maya civilization? The people could not produce enough food for everyone. The Olmec were the first to use chocolate, develop a calendar, and understand the idea of zero. Teotihuacán was the first major city in the Americas. Its temples and streets were laid out according to the position of the sun The Maya had a calendar, developed a mathematics system, built pyramids, created a system of writing, and studied the stars. Movie 45:52 – 53:06 Page 23 What are three early North American civilizations and where did they settle? Hohokam (present-day Arizona) Ancestral Pueblo (the Southwest) Mound Builders (the Midwest) Why did some early people build mounds? The Hopewell used mounds for burials and religious ceremonies. Mississippians used mounds for burial and to watch the sun and stars. The Hohokam farmed using irrigation and built homes from adobe. Irrigation supplies land with water through a series of pipes and ditches. The Ancestral Pueblo built homes into the sides of cliffs and used dry farming. Dry farming uses collected rainwater and melted snow. Homes had special rooms, called kivas, for meetings and religious purposes. Cahokia was the greatest Mississippian city. In 1100 ., it was one of the largest cities in the world. A.D Movie 37:38 – 45:45 Page 25 SETTLING THE AMERICAS What are two factors that affect the way that cultures developed? Climate Natural resources What three crops were important to the Hohokam and the Ancestral Pueblo? maize beans squash How did the availability of natural resources affect people’s decisions to settle. NATIVE AMERICANS OF THE WEST – LESSON 2 How did environments of the West affect the lives of Native Americans? Page 28 NATIVE AMERICANS OF THE WEST Inuit were hunters who used different parts of animals for food, clothing, tools, and weapons. The Tlingit and other Pacific Northwestern groups used waterways to hunt and trade. Pacific Northwest groups made totem poles to tell stories about important family members and to celebrate special events. Potlatches are feasts at which guests receive gifts from the host. NATIVE AMERICANS OF THE WEST Alike Inuit Tlingit conserved natural resources wealthy traders got most food from sea known for crafts made tools and shelter from natural resources built plank houses hunters lived in Arctic built pit houses, igloos, tents Page 31 PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST – LESSON 3 How did the Pueblo and Navajo adapt to a desert environment? Movie 30:10-37:38 Page 32 NATIVE PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST Pueblo The Pueblo used dry farming and built homes from adobe. Homes were secured by raising ladders so intruders could not enter. They also made jewelry. Navajo The Navajo were hunter-gatherers who migrated to the Southwest. They borrowed ideas from the Pueblo to adapt to the desert environment. They used dry farming, wove cotton to make cloth, and made jewelry from silver and turquoise. They lived in hogans, which are dome shaped homes made from log or stick frames then covered with mud or sod. The Navajo captured sheep and became shepherds. They used the meat for food and they used wool to make clothes and blankets. NATIVE PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST Pueblo built adobe apartments grew maize Alike used dry farming Navajo built single-family hogans wove cotton cloth made silver and turquoise jewelry raised sheep “walked in beauty” Page 35 NATIVE AMERICANS OF THE PLAINS – LESSON 4 How did Native Americans of the Plains use natural resources to survive? Page 36 NATIVE AMERICANS OF THE PLAINS Native Americans of the Plains hunted bison List two ways life changed for Native Americans on the Plains after the arrival of horses. Hunted on horseback Traded with faraway groups for food, clothing, and to make teepees. Teepees are cone-shaped homes made with long poles and covered with animal hides. The Lakota kept records of important events of each year. These records are called winter counts. Boys and girls were taught different skills to prepare them for adulthood. Page 37 PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS – LESSON 5 How did groups of the Eastern Woodlands live? Page 40 PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS Identify two major Native American groups that lived in the Eastern Woodlands. Creek Iroquois What kind of farming did they use and why? They used slash-andburn farming because the forests were so thick. Eastern Woodlands groups used materials from the forest for food and clothing. for example, they ate muskrat and deer meat. Slash-and-burn farming is when people cut down, or slash, trees to allow rays of sunlight to reach a plot of land. Then they burn the undergrowth to clear room for crops. After the harvest, they leave the plot of land empty for several years. This prevents the soil from wearing out. Page 41 PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS Creek The Creek built wattle-and-daub huts for individual families. Huts were made from poles and covered with grass, mud, or thatch. They arranged the town around a council house or Chokofa. They also decorated pots with stamps. Iroquois The Iroquois built homes on top of steep-sided hills with wood. These homes are called longhouses. The used high log fences to protect their villages Page 43 PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS Creek Iroquois Alike had huts for individual families used wattle-anddaub arranged around a council hut stamped designs on pottery grew corn celebrated Green Corn Festival played lacrosse had longhouses for several families built of wood protected village with fence made wampum PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS Government in the Woodlands Creek Formed a confederacy Divided towns into two types War towns (red)—declared war, planned battles, and held meetings with enemy groups Peace towns (white)—passed laws and held prisoners Page 44 PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS Government in the Woodlands Iroquois Women led the clans and appointed male leaders. Formed the Iroquois Confederacy Became known as the League of Six Nations after the six Iroquois groups that formed it The League of Six Nations is an example of an early democracy. Benjamin Franklin borrowed some of its ideas to include in the U.S. Constitution. Purpose of the confederacy was to promote peace among Iroquois groups. Page 45 REVIEW In which areas of North America did native people settle and develop their cultures? West Southwest Plains Eastern Woodlands What are three farming techniques that native people used? Irrigation – West in California desert Dry Farming – Southwest Slash-and-burn – Eastern Woodlands How did people in the Pacific Northwest use the sea? They used the sea to hunt and trade. Describe some of the homes of native people and who built them. Adobe – bricks made from mud and straw; protects from extreme heat and cold (Hohokam and Pueblos) Cliffs – built into the sides of cliffs (Ancestral Pueblos) Hogans – dome-shaped homes made from log or stick frames and covered with mud or sod (Navajo) Teepees – cone-shaped homes made with long poles and covered with animal hides (Plains) Wattle-and-daub huts – made from poles and covered with grass, mud, or thatch (Creek) Longhouses – built with wood on tops of steep-sided hills (Iroquois) Which Native American group formed the League of Six Nations? The Iroquois formed the League of Six Nations. How did Native Americans on the Great Plains adapt to the environment? They hunted bison and built lodges from grass, sticks, and soil.