AECT Mobile Presentation

Developing Mobile Learning
for IPOD Touches
Florence Martin
Ray Pastore
Jean Snider
University of North Carolina Wilmington
 This presentation addresses mobile learning
by discussing the design and development of
mobile websites
 Describes a case of mobile web
development in a Master’s level Instructional
Technology course at University of North
Carolina Wilmington
What is Mobile Learning?
 M-learning is the intersection of mobile
computing and e-learning and includes
anytime, anywhere resources; strong
search capabilities; rich interaction;
powerful support for effective learning; and
performance-based assessment (Quinn,
Defining Mobile Learning
 Stevens and Kitchenham (2011) define
mobile learning as
“the use of a wireless handheld device; a
cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA),
mini-computer, or iPod to engage in some
form of meaningful learning (p.3)”.
Defining Mobile Learning
 ELearning Guild 360 Mobile Learning
Research Report, 2007)
“Any activity that allows individuals to be
more productive when consuming,
interacting with, or creating information,
mediated through a compact digital portable
device that the individual carries on a
regular basis, has reliable connectivity, and
fits in a pocket or purse.’’
Emerging Mobile Learning
Traxler (2009) identifies six emerging
mobile learning categories
Technology driven m-learning
Miniature but portable e-learning
connected classroom learning
Informal/personalized/situated mobile
 Mobile training/ performance support
 remote/rural/development mobile learning
Design Recommendations
Ally (2009) recommendations: Mobile devices
 include multimedia capabilities, and course
designers should take advantage of this and
design courses to make the learning
experience stimulating
 help in student-student and student-instructor
interaction and can be used as a
communication tool
 are used for informal learning
 the learning material should be in
manageable chunks
Design Recommendations
Griffin (2011) lists ten
steps that makes great
mobile content
two minutes of content
conversational style
deliver some smarts
target the 5% remedial
 participate
 characterize content
 resist the
temptation to put
it all into push
 encourage users
to self-diagnose
 make the
elegant and
More Design Recommendations
 Bradley et al (2009) took into consideration
design principles such as interface design,
navigational techniques and interactive
functionality suggested by Flash Lite
 Baird and Whitear (2006) recommend
splitting the content into bite size chunks so
that they don’t overcrowd the screen
 Pierre and Diamantini (2009) used the
Mobile Learning Objects approach where
modules were ten minutes long, and
included text and audio format
What are Mobile Application?
 A software that runs on a handheld device that can connect to WIFI
or wireless carrier networks, and has an operating system that
supports standalone software” (Gahran, 2011)
 Can be downloaded directly onto a mobile device using the
application store on the mobile device or can be downloaded from a
computer (i.e. Apple iTunes) and connected to a mobile device
What are Mobile Websites?
 Mobile websites also known as Mobile web applications
are custom built sites designed and developed to be
accessed via the mobile device.
Limitations of Mobile Web
 Accessing the web from mobile devices
a large number of limitations
 Small screen size
 lack of multiple windows
 navigation
 lack of javascript (browser dependent)
and cookies
 types of pages accessible
 speed
 broken and compressed pages
 size of messages
 cost involved
Mobile Apps vs Mobile Websites
Need to be installed
Can be on OS
Device dependent
May cost money
Can use phone
features (gps etc.)
 Do NOT require
 Can be used on any
phone with internet
 Not on OS
 free (for the most
 Need to open
 Difficulty accessing
phone features
(GPS etc).
Developing on a Mobile Device
 Google's Android
 Other Options?
 Apple's iOS:
C, C++
Google App Inventor
All phones (apple,
android, blackberry,
Transition: Web to Mobile Web
Many columns/tables->1 Column
Defined Width->% Width
High speed->3G/4G
Data Usage problems
Large Screens->small screens
Keyboard->touch screen/small keyboard
Html->wml | html/flash>html/html5/c++/Java/flash
 Very compatible ->Device type (unless HTML)
 Plug ins->limited
Being used in education for
 to view or send content or email
 participate in discussion forums
 submit and view assignments
 send/receive feedback
 enrolling in courses (higher ed)
 communication
 texting
 emergency warning systems
Being used in corporations/gov for
 Everything on the previous slide plus….
Full courses
Flash based content
HTML5 based content
*This is where education is headed and
Education innovators are already doing
Research Problem
 Mobile learning is in it's infancy
 Research on mobile use and design is just
starting to emerge
 Much of this research focuses on mobile use
rather than mobile devices for learning
 The purpose of this study was to examine
students perceptions of developing and using
instruction for the mobile web
 Study took place at the University of North
Carolina Wilmington
 Instructional Technology graduate students
 Design
Interviews (6 Students interviewed - semi
structured interviews)
Observations (Graduate Class observed)
Role of observer: Instructor
Survey (Survey on mobile use, learning, and
 Computer Based Instruction course at UNCW
 Develop mobile based instruction via Dreamweaver
 Students were web development novice
 Students were presented lesson on web and mobile
development using Dreamweaver (3 Class periods)
 They were asked to read several articles on mobile
 Assignment
 10 minute instructional tutorials to be developed for
 Published to UNCW webspace
 Tested sites on iPod touches
 Obtained through school grant
 Students went through parts of the ISD
process to develop the instruction:
– Analysis->Design->Development
 Students had 3, 3 hour courses of in class time
to develop and test with instructor present
Design Considerations
Small screen size
Navigation (touch a link vs. click a link)
Sizing using Table Format
Instructional Design Considerations
• Concise content
• Linear organization
• Practice
Example Screens
Data Analysis
• Interviews were transcribed and coded for emerging
themes using the constant comparative method (Glaser
and Strauss, 1967). The following themes emerged from
the interviews around an overarching theme of design:
o Design:
 size;
 simplicity;
 transition
Data Analysis
• Survey data will be analyzed in SPSS (survey results
preliminary as only 8 students have taken it. We
anticipate 30+ responses at the end of this semester.)
o Survey designed as 7 point Likert-scale survey asking
participants how important design and usability
features were when developing/using mobile
Survey: Items on “Design”
Text requires zooming for reading
Text is legible without zooming
Site fits my screen size without adjustment
open new browser windows during site use/pop up windows
Elements of the site require you to download/install plugins
Scrolling up and down to view content
Scrolling to the left or right to view content
Single column layout
Multiple column layout
link location on top of screen
link location on bottom of screen
link location on left or right of screen
Text entry
drop down menus
Survey: Items on “Usability”
Quick access to the information
Good site organization
The sequence of obtaining information was clear
Site is user friendly
The site offers clear and understandable goals
The site uses media appropriately to communicate the content
The site offers content that is relevant to the audience
The site provides current and timely information
The site provides the precise information you need
The site provides accurate information
The site allows you to control the pace at which you interact with the
Semi-Structured Interview
 Describe your experience developing for the mobile web?
 What design issues did you encounter when developing for the
mobile web?
 What are the major differences developing a website for the
computer and developing for the mobile web?
 What’s the importance of user interface (UI) in mobile web
 What recommendations do you have for developers looking to
develop for the mobile web?
 What recommendations do you have for instructional designers
seeking to implement mobile learning in training and
 What did you enjoy about this experience?
 What did you dislike about this experience?
 Is there anything else you would like to add?
Design: Size (Sample Quotes)
“.. you know, the size of a phone, of an Android or iPhone or
something, then you don’t have as much room. You have to really
make good choices about what it is you are going to put in there.
can get cluttered really quick. And because everything is so much
smaller, obviously it looks different on the computer than it does on
the phones."
"The first thing you have to realize is that almost all of the users are
gonna have touch screens, which is a lot different than using a
mouse. So, I think you have to make it…you have to design the
difference in the user interface for a mobile app is that you have to
take into account that the, uh, buttons have to be legible at size and
the user has to be able to use his finger, his or her finger to actually
navigate through the site."
"Something I kind of feel when I’m on my smartphone is I feel
like im looking at things through a telescope because you’ve got
this big page but yet you’ve got this little small viewing area so
your trying to move that viewing area around so you can find out
where you going. But that on pages not set up for mobile devices.
So its like looking through a telescope."
Design: Simplicity (Sample Quotes)
 "Just having the one column made it a lot
 "I would tell people to keep, keep it simple, to
really keep it simple, because when you are
looking at something on a computer screen,
you just have a lot more space"
 "You have to take out all the fluff and, uh, try
to fit as much content on the actual screen
without the user having to scroll as much. And,
the use of a header, a content and a footer, an
actual framework, um, was really important so
that you could have consistency through each
Design: Transition (Sample
"I think the differences from going from that where
you use a keyboard and a mouse to the touch is that
you realize how big your fingers are and just a link is
not going to be very effective anymore. You need big
buttons. You need to direct the learner on where
they need to touch to go to the next screen. There is
really no pop ups, no imbedded flash type things, its
like going from one screen to the next. It seems very
linear. “
"I don’t know that you’re going to be able to do a lot
other than just quick reference job aids. I’m not sure
you’d want to have a whole instructional system
through the, for the iPhone, though maybe,, a
SmartPhone. You could do it for maybe tablets, but
again you’ve got some Flash limitations. So I would
think that job aids and things that you can learn
quickly are the realm of smart phone development."
 At this point in this study,
We are finding significant differences for Computer
based training design and Mobile based design
Future Research
Should examine best design practices of
mobile learning
Specifically should focus on multimedia
principles of learning
 Observed during study that many needed to
changed or did not apply to the mobile
 Additionally there need to be studies
examining the impact of cognitive load in the
use of these devices
Ally, M. (2009). Mobile Learning: Transforming the delivery of education and
training, AU Press
Baird, P. & Whitear, C. (2006). Mobile charting with Flash Lite 2: Designing for the
mobile device interface. Adobe mobile and device developer center.
Bradley, C., Haynes, R., Cook, J., Boyle, T. & Smith, C. (2009). Design and
development of multimedia learning objects for mobile phones. In A. Mohamed
(Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 157181). dmonton, Canada: Athabasca University Press.
Gahran, A. (2011). What’s a mobile app? Retrieved online from
Griffin, G. (2011). Ten tips for designing mobile learning content. Learning solutions
magazine. Retrieved online from
Pierre, M., & Diamantini, D. (2009). From E-learning to Mobile
Learning: New Opportunities. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning:
Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 247–
Quin, C. (2000). mLearning: Mobile, Wireless, In-Your-Pocket
Quinn, C. (2011). Designing mLearning: tapping into the
mobile revolution for organizational performance, Pfeiffer
Publishing, USA
Stevens, D. and Kitchenham, A. (2011). An analysis of mobile
learning in education, business and medicine. In Kitchenham
(Ed.) Models for Interdisciplinary Mobile Learning: Delivering
Information to Students, IGI publication. Pp. 1 – 25
Traxler (2009) Current state of mobile learning . In M. Ally
(Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education
and training (pp. 247–264).
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