STATUS OF HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA Dr. Kusumakar Sharma Assistant Director General (HRD) Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi India Today…. > 17% of the world’s human & 11% livestock population and counting 4.2% of the world’s water 2.4% of the world’s area 142 m ha cultivated & 60 m ha net irrigated 138% cropping intensity 52% of population earns livelihood in agriculture 14.7% contribution in GDP 10.5% earning of total exports Distinct Transitions: History of Agriculture Technology Convergence (21st century) Biotechnology Era (2000s) Y = 4 t/ha.. * KBS Green Revolution (1970s) Traditional Farming (Early 1900s) Y = >1.5 t/ha, HRD/ Technological Break Through Mechanization (1960s) Y = >1 t/ha, Co-operatives Y = >0.5 t/ha, Land Reforms Y = < 0.5 t/ha, Feudalism * Knowledge based Society India in World Food Basket…. Present Annual Production, mt Rank in the World Demand by 2020, mt Food grain 257 III 284 Pulses 17.2 I 22 Oilseeds 30 V 68 Horticulture Produce 234 II 336 Milk 127 I 152 Meat 6.8 V 11 Eggs (billion no.) 65 III 88 Fish 8.3 II 12 Commodity Opportunities of Agricultural Science and Technology Technology led agriculture growth possible only by strengthening institutions of higher agriculture education Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)-major drivers of national development Vital role in agricultural transformation, reducing hunger and poverty Agriculture R&D policy integrated with the national R&D system and STI Policy-2013 The research focus shifted from a commodity based approach to a farming systems approach Focused, time bound multi-disciplinary research conceived through research consortia platforms Launched National Action Plan for Climate Change to cope with the climate change Inter-departmental platforms for research involving CSIR, DBT, ICMR, DRDO, DST research institutes, universities and Ministries of Environment, Space and Earth Sciences proposed Promise and Perils of the agricultural sector Food self-sufficiency must for food & nutritional security, economic progress and industries Need for a shift from food-grains to other sub sectors of agriculture The challenge is to produce more from less for more Importance of agriculture to due to concerns for food security, employment, rural poverty and availability of wage goods One (1) %-age point growth in agriculture is 2-3 times more effective in reducing poverty than non-agriculture sector growth Paradox of relatively low contribution to GDP but dependency of more than 50% of India’s population Low agricultural productivity : a multi-faceted problem Low productivityrepresents a huge need & opportunity HRD for increased Farm Income….. Increased Farm Income Competent Human Resource Higher Production Diversification Trade & Market Development Improved Technologies Farmers Participation Policy Initiatives Legacy of Education…. Agricultural education existed in India even during ancient period. Agriculture was included in curricula of Nalanda and Takshila Universities as one of the 18 arts. In the relatively recent past, agricultural education in India started way back in 1877 with establishment of first agricultural school at Saidapet in Madras. Organized courses in agricultural education started in the beginning of the 20th century when six agricultural colleges were established. NARES:- One of the largest in the World! DUs 05 National Agricultural Research & Education System AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITIES BY SECTOR 14 4 44 3 Veterinary Sciences Horticulture Fisheries Composite Structure of Agricultural Education Informal Education Formal Education Non-Formal Education Informal Agricultural Education Learning- how to learn! Formal Agricultural Education:10+2 level Agriculture- National Curriculum for School Education-2000 (based on minimum level of learning) Pre-Primary environmental awareness Primary Classes (III- V) environmental phenomenon Upper Primary Classes (VI-VIII) Agriculture and technology processes as part of work education ICSE, CBSE & State boards Introduced agriculture as an optional subject Graduate level Agricultural Education Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) of the Central Government responsible of coordinating agricultural education in the country through ICAR. A State Agricultural University (SAU) is established through the enactment of Legislative Act of the respective state. Standard pattern for a bachelor degree in agriculture and allied sciences, except veterinary science commonly referred to as the 10+2+4 pattern. ICAR fosters a countrywide arrangement with the AUs to set aside 15% of their seats for Bachelor degree programs to be admitted through its All India Entrance Examination to improve overall quality of agricultural education Post Graduate level Agricultural Education PG degree awarded by AUs in 93 subsubjects under 20 major subject groups The professional degrees are of 4 semester duration based on a 4-year bachelor ICAR conducts entrance test for PG admissions to fill all the seats of ICAR Dus and 25% of the seats of SAU’s and CAU ICAR as nodal agency at the national level is striving to bring uniformity in syllabus, nomenclature, mode of examination and distribution of credits among major and minor fields and research work AUs award Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) degrees in 14 major subject-groups covering 56 subsubjects. Admission requires a Master' Degree in the same subject. The Ph.D. degree is of 6 semester duration involving original research and also coursework spreadover atleast two semesters ICAR research institutes and laboratories are recognized for doctoral work although the usual case is that a university awards the degree. Attracting talents to Agricultural Education…. All India Entrance Examination UG : 15% seats PG : 25% seats Fellowships / Scholarships SRF : 202 JRF : 475 NTS : ICAR UG Admissions outside state MCM : 7% of students Internship : BVSc RAWE • • • • Students Counselling, Personality Development , Placement Examination reforms Course Curriculu m 1 Rationalization of policies for admission, programme duration, credit requirements, evaluation & curricula grading-updating-revision 2 ICAR’s Deans Committees regularly suggests model course curricula, syllabi and academic regulations. 3 UG curricula for 7 major faculties revised with focus on courses like IT, bio-stats., bio-tech., ABM, banking & co-operation etc. 4 Revised UG curricula also provide 6 months of Rural Agricultural Work Experience. Detailed curricula developed for 16 PG Programmes. 5 Transparency in the internal evaluation system at UG & PG levels. Curriculum- Transition from RAWE to READY…. Objective To impart formal and informal training and prepare the working population employable for a broad range of occupations including agriculture. Vocational Courses in Agricultural Education Requirement Bridge Professionals Methodology with core basic skills in different domains of • Class-room instructions agriculture supply chain is required to the • Laboratory instructions tune of 1.7 million by • Supervised occupational 2020. experiences • Distance education Governance in agriculture education State governments I C A R Promoting norms and standards of education • Establishment of SAUs • Integration of Agricultural research extension • Ag. Edn. is State responsibility Education & Union government • Promotion of Research & co-ordination and determination of standards in State institutions • DARE co-ordinates at National level. Administration at National Level •Union Minister of Agriculture – Ex-officio President of Society •Director General of ICAR –Ex-officio Secretary DARE Tran-sectoral issues 1. 2. 3. 4. Challenges to Higher Education- no longer Nation Centric Agriculture Education needs to be evaluated in the context and relevance of Economic, environmental and production needs of the society A holistic approach needed to expand pool of institutions, scholars and students to achieve global excellence Critical areas ranging from issues of access, equity and excellence to teaching-learning process, research, governance, funding and monitoring in a coordinated manner need to be addressed Challenges & Issues…. New Universities without matching resources Faculty Shortage in the frontier areas Extensive inbreeding Inadequate employability Faculty Competence in emerging areas Lack of modern infrastructure Inadequate hands on skills Weak research networking & linkages Regional inequalities and natural resource degradation Recommendations….. 1 Attracting students to agricultural Education 7 Governance and structure 2 Academic Reforms 8 Globalization and partnership 3 Curriculum improvement 9 Centre-state partnership 4 Faculty improvement 10 Non-formal education 5 Inclusive growth 11 Financial sustainability 6 Institutional development Initiatives proposed…. • Initiation of a new fellowship “ASPIRE” for young talents, • Initiation of ICAR Post Doctoral Fellowships, • Broadening scope of NTS to PG students, • Enhancing the stipend of RAWE/Internship, • Strengthening student amenities, • Sandwich/ exchange programme New initiatives for Capacity Building and Addressing Faculty shortage Capacity Building Initiation of Centres of Faculty Excellence in AUs, Competitive Research Grant to faculty, ICAR-Overseas Associateship, International Fellowships, Faculty exposure to International Conferences/ Symposia. Centres of Excellence Addressing Faculty Shortage Adjunct & Visiting Faculty, Initiation of ICAR Resident Scholar Scheme, Initiation of ICAR Emeritus Professor Scheme, Strengthening of ICAR-Emeritus Scientist Scheme. Teaching Associates/ Teaching Assistants Globalizing Education…. Attract international students Encourage global networking Promote collaborative research Permit dual degree programmes Set up campuses abroad Strategic alliance International Linkages…. AUs having MoUs with Foreign Universities Foreign Students Admission (Over 250/year) ICAR International Fellowships (15 every year, both ways) India - Africa Fellowships India -Afghanistan Fellowships 75 Fellowships (50 M.Sc. + 25 Ph.D.) every year for 4 years to Africans in India 115 Fellowships (75 M.Sc. + 40 Ph.D.) every year for 5 years to Afghans in India ASEAN Federal Support to AUs Renovation & Modernization of Labs, Class Rooms, etc. Library e - Resources Faculty Development Extended Faculty (Guest Lecture, Adjunct & Guest Faculty) e-Courses Fast and low-cost method to increase outreach to students/colleges / universities • One of the largest e-learning initiatives • Provides uniform & quality learning material both online & offline to complement formal education • Courses developed & delivered -262 out of 426 Degree Programs Covered (7) Agriculture, B.V.Sc. & AH, Horticulture, Fishery Science, Home Science, Dairy Tech and Agril. Engg. Total 426 Courses Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture CeRA facilitates online access of scientific journal on Scientist's desktop at 24x7 through IP Authentication • Covers 2900 Journals to 145 Members in NARS • > 8000 DDR (Document Delivery Request) System • Assuming a cost of US $ 4 per article download the Consortium has notionally recovered more than Rs. 80 Crore Avg. Citation of Research Publications (2000-2004) in 2004-07 (Pre-) and 2008-11 (Post-) CeRA Achievements in Agricultural Education Access Increased Knowledge Quality Assurance Better Governance Gender Equity Entrepreneurship Confidence Acceptability of Students Employability of Students Faculty Competence Reduced Inbreeding Promotion of Excellence Promotion of Merit Globalization Conclusions… India has a very strong and dynamic agricultural education system in the country for ensuring sustainable agricultural development and livelihood security. Agricultural education system in India has distinctly evolved on the British system of education during pre-independence era and in post-independence era, on the US Land grant pattern. The continued support of ICAR has resulted tremendous improvement in infrastructure, skilled manpower and capacity of faculty and farms. A dynamic approach is needed to bring transformation towards producing professionals who are competent, self- reliant and capable to swiftly adjust with the ever-changing societal requirements. India is poised to become preferred destination of foreign students for agricultural education because of improved infrastructure and enhanced skills and competencies for meeting new challenges. Vision 2030: Green Revolution to Rainbow Revolution Our efforts in HRD continue….