off season paddystraw mushroom cultivation under low

Report
BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF BHADRAK DISTRICT
 12th most populous district of the state
 Supports 3.6 % human and 3.5 % animal
population of the state with only 1.6 % of
the geographical area
 Rural population : 90.06
population of the district
% of
total
 72.90 % Rural population depend on
agriculture and allied sector for their
livelihood
VULNERABILITY MAP OF BHADRAK
BONTH
BASUDEVPUR
BHADRAK
TIHIDI
BHANDARIPOKHARI
DHAMNAGAR
CHANDBALI
Agro Eco Situations
Total geographical area
Total cultivable area
Irrigated area
Cropping intensity
Land types
AGRICULTURE SCENARIO OF BHADRAK
DISTRICT
Agro Climatic Zone North Eastern Coastal Plain Zone
Alluvial Canal Irrigated
Low lying flood prone
Saline Soil Group
2,70,164 ha
1,76,000 ha
65 % (Kharif)
20.6 % ( Rabi)
132.6%
Upland
Medium land
Low land
8%
57%
35%
LAND HOLDING PATTERN OF THE DISTRICT
Size of holding
No. of
holding
Per cent of Area
total land (ha)
holding
< 1 ha (Marginal)
85,779
58.5
38,889
1-2 ha (Small)
34,178
23.3
47,751
2-4 ha (Medium)
20,909
14.3
55,615
>4 ha (Large)
5,751
3.7
33,602
Distribution of land holding
4%
14%
23%
59%
Per cent of Total Land holding
Marginal
Small
Medium
Large
19%
32%
22%
27%
Share of Area
MAJOR CROPPING SYSTEMS
Cropping System
Area
(ha)
Rice-Black gram
Rice- Green gram
Rice- Toria
Rice-Sunflower
Rice-Ground nut
Rice-Vegetables
Rice- Rice
7550
6525
1178
1116
1505
9587
15620
Rice
Equivalent
Yield
(q/ha)
48.49
44.02
40.63
74.27
84.98
113.57
63.99
FISHERIES & ANIMAL RESOURCES
Inland Fisheries Resources
No.
Water
spread
Area (ha)
Productio
n (MT)
Producti
vity
(MT/ha)
Tanks &
Ponds– G.P.
2315
704.8
1311.0
1.86
Revenue
436
151.0
268.8
1.78
Private
15496
2939.1
7142.0
2.43
18247
3794.9
8721.8
2.28
Fresh water
source
Total
Animal Resources
Animal Resources
Cattle - Cross bred
Indigenous
Buffaloes
Goat
Sheep
Others (Pig)
Poultry
Numbers
169788
394789
13810
201333
10273
9169
735246
District Agriculture -Threats and Concerns
Deteriorating resource base
Fragmented Land holding
Climatic aberrations and occurrence of extreme events
Low irrigation facilities during rabi
Biotic stresses such as disease & insect pest outbreak
Declining farm profitability and large scale urban migration
High cost of external inputs and labour scarcity
Distress sale of farm produce particularly rice
Menace of stray cattle & monkey
WHY SMALL HOLDERS ARE VULNERABLE ??
Limited resource base (Natural and Physical)
Low profitability and marketable surplus
Less scope for diversification
Limited access to technology, credit and market
Less capital for asset building
Low adaptability to external shocks
Low risk bearing ability
Subsistence orientation
Lack of awareness about the Govt. schemes & programs
Low social recognition in community decision making processes
LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS FOR SMALL HOLDERS
Intensification of existing production system
Integration of suitable components in a farming system
approach
Encouragement of off-farm & non-farm activities to supplement
the family income
Market re-orientation through diversification of production
system and processing of farm produces
These options under the umbrella of Integrated Farming System approach can
sustain the livelihoods of small holder
Ensuring Food and
Nutritional security
Employment
Generation
Enhancement
in Income
OBJECTIVES OF IFS
STRATEGY FOLLOWED BY KVK TO PROMOTE INTEGRATED FARMING
SYSTEM S FOR SMALL HOLDERS
Identification of existing pond based farming systems
Analyzing the economics, social and component compatibility, resource use,
residue recycling and constraints
Technology intervention for maximizing the out put of individual
components and optimizing system productivity
Assessing the sustainability of the farming systems and documentation of
threats and constraints
Validating the suitability of the situation
system models at different locations
specific
pond based farming
Creating gainful employment opportunity through processing and value
addition
Convergence and institutional linkage for strengthening and horizontal
spread of the technology
PROCESS ADOPTED BY KVK
SURVEY &
DOCUMENTATION
SYSTEM ANALYSIS &
INTERVENTION POINTS
TECHNOLOGY TESTING
MONITORING
CLUSTERING ,
NETWORKING, & DATABASE
UPSCALING THROUGH
CONVERGENCE
MAJOR INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS OF THE DISTRICT
Sl.
No
Farming Systems
Componets/Enterprises
Per cent
Net Income
(Rs)/ha
Marginal Farmers
1
Rice based FS
Fruits/ Vegetable + Pisciculture
32
83,940
2
Rice based FS
Dairy + Poultry
18
47,730
3
Pond based FS
Rice + Dairy
21
62,610
4
Rice based FS
Fruits/Vegetable + Mushroom
16
70,400
5
Rice based FS
Mushroom
7
58,600
Small Farmers
1
Rice based FS
Fruits/Vegetable + Dairy + Pisciculture
34
72,500
2
Rice based FS
Oilseed/Pulses + Fruits/Vegetables +
Poultry
19
58,600
3
Pond based FS
Rice + Oil seed /Pulses+
Fruits/Vegetable+ Dairy
25
76,860
4
Vegetable based
FS
Rice + Fruits/Vegetable + Mushroom
12
68,340
5
Pond based FS
Rice + Fruits/Vegetable +Dairy +
Pisciculture+ Mushroom
7
72,900
POSSIBILITIES OF ENTERPRISE COMBINATION FOR SMALL HOLDERS
EXISTING
SCOPE FOR INTEGRATION
SCOPE FOR EXPANSION
RICE
PULSES & OILSEEDS
VEGETABLES
FRUITS
PISCICULTURE
MUSHROOM
DAIRY
POULTRY
GOATERY
DUCKERY
APIARY
PISCICULTURE
PROMISING ENTERPRISES
MUSHROOM
OPPORTUNITY FOR PISCICULTURE IN THE DISTRICT
EXISTENCE OF PONDS NEAR HOUSE
UNUTILISED POND
OPPORTUNITIES FOR POND BASED FARMING SYSTEM
Out of total of 18247 cultivable ponds , 15277 ponds situated in
backyard are small with an average area of 0.18 ha are mostly
under utilized
Additional 11475 small ponds developed through MGNREGS
and Multi-purpose Farm pond schemes
Requirement of 1986 MT of fish in the district considering the
internal fish demand there is an additional
MUSHROOM PRODUCTION
An emerging off-farm enterprise of the district
Strength of the enterprise
Opportunities for the enterprise
 Low investment, minimum infrastructure
requirement and simple cultivation
technique
 Higher return within a small period of
time
 Huge availability of paddy straw
 Established value chain
 Good network of service providers for
input, technology and market
 Huge market demand both inside and
outside the district
 Efficient use of farm resources (paddy
straw) and family labour
 Scope for processing and value addition
 Attractive to unemployed youths and farm
women
 Technology validated for off-season
production
140
No. of poly houses
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
Years after adoption of technology
5
Growth of Mushroom enterprise
3500
7000
No. of Growers
Production(q)
6000
3000
Employment generation
2500
5000
Year
2012-13
2011-12
2010-11
2009-10
2008-09
2007-08
2006-07
2005-06
2012-13
0
2011-12
0
2010-11
1000
2009-10
500
2008-09
2000
2007-08
1000
2006-07
3000
2005-06
1500
2004-05
4000
2004-05
Income ('0000 Rupees))
2000
Year
1380 growers producing 40.8 q mushroom per day providing employment to
3640 rural youth and farm women
More than 86 commercial mushroom growers and 52 SHGs engaged in
mushroom production and value addition under the technical guidance of KVK
A mushroom growers’ association formed and strengthened by KVK to promote
mushroom as an enterprise in a big way
This enterprise is mostly adopted by the resource poor small holders
COMPONENTS OF POND BASED FARMING SYSTEM
Vegetable cultivation
on the dyke
Banana cultivation
Tuber crops on pond bund
Fruits on pond bund
Poultry
Vermicompost
production
Dairy
Duckery
Apiculture
Resource recycling in pond based farming system
APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATON
OF IFS
INTENSIFICATION OF EXISTING FARMING SYSTEM
INTEGRATION OF SUITABLE COMPONENTS
KEY INTERVENTIONS UNDERTAKEN BY KVK
PISCICULTURE
Problem
Intervention
Low income from single cropping
pattern in pisciculture
Validation of KVK Innovation of Multiple stocking and multiple
harvesting and subsequent wide spread dissemination
Occurrence of nutritional deficiency
disorders in fishes (Scoliosis , Lordosis,
bigger head- narrow trunk etc.)
Assessment of Vitamin-mineral premix with traditional feed
Cost involvement towards artificial
fish feed is very high (Approx. 70% of
production cost)
Rearing of Khaki Campbell with composite pisciculture
Phytoplanktonic bloom frequently
crashes during winter
Assessment and demonstration of liquid micronutrients in
sustaining phytoplankton bloom during winter
Key Interventions undertaken by KVK
B. Crop production
Problem
Intervention
Low yield and high incidence of diseases
in the existing varieties of paddy
Varietal evaluation and demonstration of high
yielding varieties like Pratikshya, Ranidhan etc.
Low yield of rice, pulses and oilseed crops Recommendation of balanced fertilizer dose and
due to imbalanced nutrient application
INM to farmers and extension functionaries
Assessment of LCC for N management in rice
Low yield due to high incidence of sheath
blight, blast, BPH & WBPH, stem borer
and leaf folder in rice
Assessment and demonstration on IPDM
technology in rice
Key Interventions undertaken by KVK
C. Horticulture
Problem
Intervention
Sub-optimal utilisation of pond Demonstration on elephant foot yam and yam, tissue
dykes
culture banana, papaya and bowering system of
cucurbits planting on the dyke
Imbalanced nutrient application in Demonstration on INM in major vegetable crops,
vegetables
brinjal, tomato and chilli
High incidence of diseases and Assessment and demonstration on various IPDM
insect pests in vegetable and fruit modules against major disease and insect pests of
crops
brinjal, tomato, chilli, taro, cabbage, pointed gourd,
pumpkin, coconut and banana
Low yield potential of existing Demonstration on the improved varieties/ hybrids of
varieties
onion, garlic, brinjal. Tomato, chilli and cole crops
Key Interventions undertaken by KVK
D. Mushroom
Problem
Intervention
Difficulties in Paddy straw mushroom Demonstration on off-season paddy straw
production during winter season and low mushroom production in low cost poly house
market demand for Oyster mushroom
Low availability of unthreshed paddy straw
due to mechanized threshing
Assessment and demonstration of threshed
paddy straw as substrate
Less consumer preference and low
profitability of Oyster mushroom
Processing and value addition of Oyster
mushroom viz. pickle, nuggets, dehydrated
mushroom, soup powder, mushroom flour
Animal Health Camp
Exposure visit
KISHAN MOBILE ADVISORY TO THE IFS FARMERS
ON FARM EVALUATION OF KVK INTERVENTIONS ON FARMING SYSTEMS
Sri Santosh Nayak, Vill-Bhagia, Bhadrak
Size of holding: 0.85 ha, Family size: 6
Before intervention
(2009)
Module
Paddy
After intervention
Activity
Gross
return
(Rs)
Activity
Specific Intervention
0.4 ha
19800
0.4 ha
Fertilizer
management, IPM
48400
12850
Fish
production
0.4 ha
(Single
cropping
pattern)
Vegetable
(Pointed
gourd)
0.05 ha
(Local
var.)
Dairy
2 cowscross
bred
Total
0.85 ha
Additional
cost
involved,
Rs
Gross
return,
Rs
Addl.
Employme
nt (days)
620
24720
2
0.4 ha
Multiple cropping
pattern of
pisciculture by use of
SFL/SYL
37200
144100
120
0.05 ha
(Improved
var.)
Varietal replacement
with Swarna Aloukik
with bowering
system planting
5500
29450
23
28400
2 cowscross bred
Fodder cultivation
Feed management
900
35600
20
119450
0.85 ha
44220
233870
165
ON FARM EVALUATION OF KVK INTERVENTIONS ON FARMING SYSTEMS
Varietal replacement of local var. with
improved var. Swarna Aloukik
Trailing system of planting of
pointed gourd
ON FARM EVALUATION OF KVK INTERVENTIONS ON FARMING SYSTEMS
Rabi Narayan Barik
Maitapur, Bhadrak)
Size of holding: 0.9 ha
Family size: 6
Enterprises before intervention
Specific Intervention on 1st year
Paddy
0.5 ha
Fertilizer management, IPM
Fish production
0.4 ha
Use of SFL/SYL, supplementary feeding, INM, IDM
Dairy
2 cows
(Indigenous)
Fodder cultivation and Feed management
Farming system 3 yrs after KVK Intervention
Effect of KVK Intervention
160000
Paddy
0.2 ha
Fish production
0.4 ha
Fish seed production
0.2 ha
Dairy
Cows-2 (Indigenous)
1- Cross bred
Vegetables
0.1 ha
Before Intervention
Gross Return (Rs.)
140000
After Intervention
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
Fodder (Hybrid napier)
0.01 ha
0
Paddy
Fish production
Dairy
Additional cost involved (Rs)
119500
Net return before intervention (Rs)
32400
Net return 3 years after intervention (Rs)
104220
Additional employment generated (days)
370
ON FARM EVALUATION OF KVK INTERVENTIONS ON FARMING SYSTEMS
Before intervention
(2006)
Module
Paddy
Dairy
Activity
0.4ha
Cow-1Indigen
ous
Gross
return
(Rs)
21500
2300
Fish
production
Vegetables
Total
0.4 ha
23800
Sri Debadatta Panda, Vill-Jamujodi, Tihidi
Size of holding: 0.4 ha, Family size: 6
Activity
After intervention
Specific Intervention
Additional
cost
involved, Rs
Gross
return,
Rs
Area
converted to
pond
-60
Cross bred - 2
Indigenous-1
Feed management
0.32 ha
newly
developed
Multiple cropping pattern
in pisciculture using
SFL/SYL
0.08 ha
Production technology
for round the year
cultivation
0.4
Addl.
Employ
ment
(days)
53200
45
78400
50
12750
25500
70
74850
157100
105
35600
26500
Sri Bharat Chandra Samal
Village – Patuli , Block- Bhandaripokhari, Bhadrak (Odisha)
BACKGROUND
Land holding: 1.6 ha
Family size: 10
EXSTING FARMING SYSTEM
Rice+ vegetable+Mushroom
NET RETURN
Rs.1,42,00
Problems diagnosed
• Low profitability of paddy & vegetables
• Low income to support family needs
• High cost incurred in external inputs
Off season mushroom production in low cost polyhouse
and strengthening through ATMA (OFT – 2007-08)
Inclusion of pulses and oilseeds in crop production
Linkage with FFDA for development of farm pond & with
Horticulture dept. for vermicompost unit
KVK Intervention
Family employment
generation
1130 days/yr
NET RETURN
Rs.584400/yr
OPPORTUNITY COST
Rs.225980
FARMING SYSTEM IN 2012-13
Rice - Sunflower
Vegetable
Fruits & plantation crops
Pisciculture
Mushroom
Dairy
Vermicompost
Forestry
RECYCLING OF RESOURCES AND ORGANIC RESIDUES WITHIN
AWARDED AT DISTRICT
& STATE LEVEL
VALUE OF RESIDUE
RECYCLED
Rs. 83600
Sri Prabodh Behera
Village – Jamajodi- Tihidi, Bhadrak (Odisha)
Background
Land holding: 1.0 ha
Family size: 8
Earlier agricultural activities
Rice-Pulse + vegetable +Dairy
KVK Intervention since 2006
Problems diagnosed
• Low profitability of paddy , pulse & vegetables
• Low income to support family needs
• High cost incurred in external inputs
Improved production technology of rice, pulse &
vegetables
Development fof farm pond through convergence with
DRDA
Multiple cropping pattern in pisciculture and introduction
of poultry and duckery
Plantation of banana and guava on the pond dyke
Linkage with Horticulture dept. for
apiary &
vermicompost unit
Farming system in 3rd year of Intervention
Pisciculture + Rice-pulse + Vegetables + Fruit crops+ Dairy + Poultry + Duckery + Apiary + Vermicompost
Net monetary Return Rs.296496 / year
Micronutrient application in pond
Elephant food yam on pond dyke
Vermicomposting
Vegetable seedling raising
Elephant foot yam
Farming system in 5th year of Intervention
Pisciculture + Rice-pulse + Vegetables + Fruit crops+ Dairy + Poultry + Apiary + Vermicompost
Net monetary Return Rs.416300 / year
VALUE OF RESIDUE
RECYCLED
FAMILY EMPLOYMENT
Rs. 48100
704 MD/year
INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGE FOR UP SCALING POND BASED FARMING SYSTEM
NABARD
Dept. of
Agriculture &
Horticulture
ATMA
Capacity building &
Exposure visit
Demonstration, Farm
School, Exposure
visit & Publication
KVK
Technology dissemination,
Supply of quality seed & planting
materials, development of farm
ponds & irrigation facility etc.
Animal
Resource
Department
Fishery
Department
NGOs &
Farmers
Club
Vaccination of Poultry Birds, Ducks
& Dairy Animals, Animal Health Camp,
Supply of Fodder Seed materials
Awareness generation ,
Facilitation
Development of multipurpose farm ponds,
Supply of quality fish
seeds etc.
OUTCOMES & IMPACT
 Ensured livelihood and nutritional security of more than 320 smallholders
of the district
 Created gainful employment for more than 1000 persons round the year
and further widen the opportunity for unemployed youth and agriculture
labourers
 Intensification of farming systems of marginal and small farmers with
minimum alteration of existing resource base
 Enabled multi-commodity production for easy marketing and risk
reduction
 Created favourable attitudinal changes among the rural youths towards
farming as a vocation
 Effective convergence with line departments and strengthening
co-ordination among the partners
LESSON LEARNT
 Improvement of the productivity of existing enterprise








Enterprise combination is gradual process
Better utilisation of resources and recycling of farm residues
Social factor is the key for enterprise selection and combination
Constant monitoring and regular technical backstopping
Market led production ensures profitability
Fish seed production is more remunerative than table size fish production
Poultry (Improved colour bird) and duckery facing natural threat of wild cat
Up scaling through convergence with line departments
FUTURE STRATEGY
 Development of viable farming system models for marginal
farmers with very small holding
 Standardization of different pond based farming system
models for different categories of farmers through on-farm
validation
 Inclusion of this approach in the SREP and CDAP of the district
as an important strategic component
 Facilitate accelerated dissemination of technology though
handholding approach
 Exploring more areas of convergence with different
stakeholders and programmes
Thank You

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