Lymphatic System and immunity

Report
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By Sheena Yvarra & Taylah Montgomery
General Functions
Removes excess
fluid from tissues
and transports it into
the bloodstream
 Absorbs fats from
small intestine
 Helps defend the
body against
disease-causing
agents

Major Organs
Spleen
 Thymus

Thymus
Spleen
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hatic_system.jpg
Spleen
Largest lymphatic organ
 FUNCTIONS:

foreign particles and damaged red blood
cells from blood
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 Contains many macrophages, which filter
Thymus


Relatively large during
infancy and early
childhood; shrinks after
puberty
FUNCTIONS:
 Contains inactive
lymphocytes and turn them
into mature or active T cells
 T cells (T lymphocytes) leave
thymus & provide immunity
*Lymphocytes- white blood cell that
attack invading viruses, bacteria,
and other parasitic cells
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Lymphatic Pathway
Lymphatic
Capillary
Lymphatic
Vessel
Lymph Node
Lymphatic
Vessel
Lymphatic Trunk
Collecting Duct

Lymphatic vessels- transport
lymph(fluid) throughout body
Subclavian Vein
Lymphatic Pathway

Lymphatic Ducts:
 Thoracic
 Right Lymphatic
**Thoracic duct is larger and
longer; lower limbs, abdomen,
left side of body
*Right Lymphatic receives
lymph from right side of head
and neck
Lymph Nodes




Vary in size and shape
Usually less than 2.5 cm long
Bean shaped
FUNCTIONS:
 Filters potentially harmful particles
from lymph before returning it to the
bloodstream
 Centers for production of
lymphocytes, and they also contain
phagocytic cells
*Lymphocytes- white blood cell that
attack invading viruses, bacteria, and
other parasitic cells
5 Types of Antibodies
(Immunoglobulins)
Antibodies- special proteins that fight off and destroy disease-causing
germs
Antigen- foreign substance introduced into the body and causes immune
response; molecules produced by the body
1.
2.
3.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
 is in tissue fluid and plasma and defends against
bacterial cells, viruses, and toxins and activates
complement, a group of immune system enzymes
Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
 is in exocrine gland secretions (breast milk, saliva,
tears) and defends against bacteria and viruses.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
 is found in plasma and activates complement and
reacts with blood cells during transfusions.
5 Types of Antibodies
(Immunoglobulins)
4. Immunoglobulin D (IgD)


Found on surface of B
cells, especially those of
infants
Activate B cells
5. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
 is found in exocrine gland
secretions and promotes
allergic reactions
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Immune Responses

First reaction to an antigen is called a primary
immune response
 during this response, antibodies are produced for
several weeks
 some B cells remain dormant as memory cells

Secondary immune response occurs rapidly
as a result of memory cell response if the
same antigen is encountered
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Active vs Passive Immunity

Active immunity
 person produces antibodies in
response to the presence of
antigen
 Long-term immunity

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Passive immunity
 Person receives antibodies
produced by another individual
 Short-term immunity
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Vaccination
Vaccine produces
another type of active
immunity
 helps protect against
infectious disease by
exposing you to a mild
or dead version of the
germ
 Makes your body build
up protection in the form
of antibodies

Antigens that cause allergic
response is called allergens
 Allergic response is an immune
attack against a nonharmful
substance, like chocolate
 Sensitize lymphocytes and
antibodies may bind antigens
 Can damage tissues
 Can be dangerous and lifethreatening

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Allergic Reactions
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Tissue Rejection Reaction
Recipient’s immune system may
recognize donor’s cell surfaces as
foreign and attempt to destroy the
transplanted tissue
 Matching donor and recipient tissues
can minimize the rejection reaction

Autoimmunity
immune system fails to distinguish
self from nonself antigens
 Produces autoantibodies and
cytotoxic T cells that attack and
damage the body’s tissues and
organs

**Self antigen- antigen that originates
within the body
** Nonself antigen- foreign antigens
not originally within the
body
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
Lymphedema
 Chronic swelling of the
limbs caused by the
accumulation of lymph fluid

Hodgkin’s lymphoma
 Type of cancer that typically
occurs when the white
blood cells become
diseased or damaged
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Diseases
Works Cited


http://glencoe.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0218378151/student_view0/chapter14/study_outline.h
tml
http://www.livescience.com/26983-lymphatic-system.html

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