What is Cancer? What is Cancer? The term “cancer” refers to more than 100 different diseases that begin in the cells (the body’s basic unit of life) where the cells begin to grow out of control. Cell Loses Control of Normal Growth Normal cell division Cell Suicide (Apoptosis) Cell damage— no repair Cancer cell division First mutation Second mutation Third mutation Fourth or later mutation Uncontrolled growth Example of Normal Growth Dead cells shed from outer surface Epidermis Dividing cells in basal layer Cell migration Dermis Beginning of a Cancerous Growth Underlying tissue How a Tumor Forms Underlying tissue How Cancer Cells Invade & Spread 1 Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels 2 Cancer cells are moved by the circulatory system to other tissues/organs 3 Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location Example: Brain Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream Liver Melanoma (initial tumor) Example: Brain Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream Liver Melanoma (initial tumor) Example: Brain Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream Liver Melanoma (initial tumor) Example: Brain Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream Liver Melanoma (initial tumor) Example: Brain Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream Liver Melanoma (initial tumor) Malignant vs. Benign Tumors Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only where they started to grow and cannot spread Time Malignant (cancer) cells grow into neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and move to different sites Types Some common carcinomas: Lung Breast Colon Bladder Prostate (men) Leukemias: Bloodstream Lymphomas: Lymph nodes Some common sarcomas: Fat Bone Muscle Naming Cancers Cancer Prefixes Point to Location Prefix Meaning adeno- gland chondro- cartilage erythro- red blood cell hemangio- blood vessels hepato- liver lipo- fat lympho- lymphocyte melano- pigment cell myelo- bone marrow myo- muscle osteo- bone Early Cancer May Not Have Any Symptoms How is Cancer Detected & Diagnosed? Cancer Screening & Prevention 0 Screening tests for common types of cancer: 0 Breast – Screening Mammogram 0 Cervix – Pap Test 0 Colon – fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy 0 Prostate – PSA test Barriers to Screening 0 Examples of barriers include: - Fear of cancer - Lack of knowledge - Modesty - Communication - Illness beliefs Possible Symptoms 0 There are many different symptoms known to be associated with certain types of cancers. 0 A symptom is a sign that something is not right in the body and does NOT always indicate cancer. Possible Symptoms 0 Change in bowel or bladder habits 0 A sore that does not heal 0 Unusual bleeding or discharge 0 Thickening, lump, or swelling in the breast or any other part of the body 0 Indigestion or difficulty swallowing 0 Recent change in wart or mole 0 Nagging cough or hoarseness Diagnosis of Cancer 0 To diagnose the presence of cancer, a doctor must remove a piece of affected tissue (biopsy) and look at it under a microscope. Diagnosis of Cancer 0 Once the cancer diagnosis has been made, more testing may be necessary to determine the primary site (where the cancer started). 0 The primary site helps determine the type of treatment of the cancer. Staging 1. In situ: Early cancer that has not spread to neighboring tissues. 2. Local: Cancer is found only in the organ where it started to grow. 3. Regional: Cancer has spread to the surrounding tissues or lymph nodes. 4. Distant: Cancer has spread to other organs and systems of the body. Western vs. Traditional Approaches to Cancer Treatment Western 0 Science based. 0 Focuses on the physical aspect of disease. 0 A team of special doctors work together to develop a treatment plan to fit each person’s situation. Traditional 0 A traditional healer establishes a long-term relationship with the person and their family. 0 Treatment plan focus is on the “whole person”. Treatment Treatment for cancer depends on several factors including: 0 Type of cancer 0 The size, location and stage of the disease 0 General health of the individual Treatment A treatment plan may include the following: 0 Surgery 0 Chemotherapy 0 Radiation Therapy 0 Hormone Therapy 0 Biologic Therapy 0 Clinical Trial Treatment Side Effects: 0 Side effects of cancer treatment result from damage to healthy cells and tissues in additional to the cancer cells. 0 Depend of the type and extent of treatment. 0 May include: nausea/vomiting, fatigue, numbness, lymphedema, pain, sleep, sexual side effects . . . Others? Resources 0 Native American Cancer Research: www.natamcancer.org Resources 0 Native Circle: http://cancercenter.mayo.edu/nativeresources.cfm Resources 0 American Cancer Society: http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/SupportProgramsS ervices/index Resources 0 American Cancer Society: 0 Online Support Communities 0 ‘Road to Recovery’ – Rides to Treatment 0 ‘Hope Lodge’ – Rides to Treatment 0 ‘TLC’ – Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products 0 ‘Reach to Recovery’ – Breast Cancer Support 0 ‘Man to Man’ – Prostate Cancer Support 0 ‘I Can Cope’ – Cancer Education Classes 0 ‘Look Good . . . Feel Better’ for Teens 0 Patient Navigation Services Number: 1-800-227-2345 Resources 0 National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov 0 http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/coping/life-aftertreatment/page1 Resources 0 Journey Forward: http://journeyforward.org/ Resources 0 LIVESTRONG: www.livestrong.org Resources 0 Iowa Cancer Consortium: www.canceriowa.org 0 Special thanks to Cancer 101 slides developed by the National Cancer Institute and the NW Tribal Cancer Control Project.