The Progressive Era America Seeks Reforms in the Early 20th Century ■Essential Question: –How did problems in the Gilded Age contribute to “progressive” reforms in the early 20th century? ■Warm-Up Question: –Use your notes & knowledge of U.S. history to create a list of problems that were created in the Gilded Age (1870-1900) –Consider: Cities, Government, the West & South, Business Urban Reform During the Progressive Era (1890-1920) ■ From 1890 to 1920, reformers tried to clean up problems (“progress”) created during the Gilded Age: –Cities were plagued by slums, crime, disease, tenements –Corporate monopolies limited competition & workers’ wages The Social Gospel Movement ■ In the 1880s, many middle-class Protestant Christians embraced the Social Gospel movement: –To honor God, people must put aside their own desires & help other people, especially the poor –These ideas helped inspire Progressive reform in U.S. cities Urban Progressive Reformers ■ One of the earliest progressive reforms was the settlement house movement led by Jane Addams –Addams’ Hull House in Chicago offered baths, cheap food, child care, job training, health care to poor citizens –Her efforts inspired reformers in other cities to build settlement houses to assist the poor Urban Poverty Hull House Nursery Urban Progressive Reformers ■ Urban reformers tried to improve the lives of poor workers & children – YMCA created libraries & gyms for young men & children – Salvation Army created soup kitchens & nurseries – Attempt to end child labor Muckrakers ■ In addition to the Social Gospel, progressive reformers were aided by a new, investigative journalism: – Muckrakers were journalists who exposed problems like poverty, corruption, monopolization Michael Moore (“Investigate, Educate, Legislate”) What did Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives (1890) expose? Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives (1890) exposed urban poverty & life in the slums What did Ida Tarbell’s The History of Standard Oil (1904) expose? Ida Tarbell’s The History of Standard Oil (1904) revealed Rockefeller’s ruthless business practices & called for the break-up of large monopolies What did Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) expose? Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) revealed the unsanitary conditions of slaughterhouses & led to gov’t regulation of food industries Conclusions ■ Progressive movement -- attempt to fix urban problems – Reformers lacked unity & were dedicated to their own causes – But their efforts led to a shift: gov’t began to take responsibility for citizens & intervene in their lives ■ Essential Question: –How did Progressive reformers attempt to improve the lives of women & African-Americans? ■ Warm-Up Question: –What was the “Social Gospel”? –What was a “muckraker”? –Who was the more important reformer: Jane Addams The Women’s Movement ■ In the Gilded Age, women had more opportunities beyond marriage: – New urban jobs as secretaries, store clerks, & telephone operators gave a sense of independence – More girls graduated from high school & attended universities The Women’s Movement ■Women played an important role as Progressive reformers: –Jane Addams led the settlement house movement –Muckraker Ida Tarbell exposed monopoly abuses of Standard Oil The Women’s Movement ■ Women reformers began to call attention to their own lack of rights: – In most states, married women could not divorce or own property – Women could not vote, but AfricanAmerican, immigrant, & illiterate men could – Women workers were paid less than men for doing the same jobs – Middle & upper class women were expected to serve domestic & child rearing roles in the home Women’s Suffrage ■ The most significant reform for women was voting rights (suffrage) – Women demanded suffrage since Seneca Falls in 1848 – Frustrated in 1870 when the 15th Amendment gave African-American men the right to vote but not women – 1890, National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was formed Suffragettes 1900 -- 10 million bikes on the road The bicycle was a new invention that took the nation by storm – every manufacturer had a ‘ladies model.’ Of course, long dresses and bustles did not lend themselves to riding bikes –women went to more comfortable, useful clothing –Even Susan B. Anthony was a convert “Bicycling did more to emancipate women than anything in the world.” Anti-Suffrage Pamphlet (c.1918) ◼ “Housewives! ◼ You do not need a ballot to clean out your sink spout. A handful of potash and some boiling water is quicker and cheaper… ◼ Why vote for pure food laws, when your husband does that, while you can purify your Ice-box with chlorine and lime-water?” ◼ “Vote NO on Woman Suffrage ◼ BECAUSE 90% of the women either do not want it, or do not care. ◼ BECAUSE it means competition of women with men instead of co-operation. ◼ BECAUSE 80% of the women eligible to vote are married and can only double or annul their husband’s votes… ◼ BECAUSE in some States more voting women than voting men will place the Government under petticoat rule. ◼ BECAUSE it is unwise to risk the good we already have for the evil which may occur. “ Women’s Suffrage ■ NAWSA leaders Susan B. Anthony & Carrie Chapman Catt pressured states to let women vote & called for a national suffrage amendment – By the early 1900s, most western states allowed women to vote – Finally in 1920, the states ratified the 19th Amendment giving women to right to vote 19th Amendment: The right of the citizens of the United States to Women’s vote shall not be denied or abridgedSuffrage by the United States or by any Before State on account1900 of sex. Reform for African-Americans Plessy v Ferguson (1896): ■ By 1900, African-Americans were in Segregation does not violate the need of progressive reform th amendment & can be used as 14 – 80% of lived in rural areas in the long as separate facilities are equal South, most as sharecroppers (“separate but equal”) – Poll taxes & literacy tests limited African-American voting rights – Lynching & violence were common – Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) allowed Jim Crow laws to segregate in restaurants, hotels, schools African-American Reforms ■ However, AfricanAmerican leaders were divided on how to address racial problems – Booker T. Washington was Harvard educated, The wisest among my race understand that African-American urbanequality culture,is the studied agitation of questions of social was 1st president Tuskegee the&extremist folly, andof that progress in the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come University must beCompromise” the result of severe and – to Hisus“Atlanta stressed constant struggle rather than of artificial African-American self-improvement & forcing. accommodation with whites —Booker T. Washington African-American Reforms ■ W.E.B. DuBois was more aggressive ■ DuBois led the Niagara Movement in 1905 calling for immediate We claim for ourselves every single right civil rights, integrated that belongs to a free American, schools, & promotion political, civil and social, and until we get ofthese the “Talented 10thnever ” to be theto rights we will cease protest and assail of theAfricanears of America next generation —W.E.B. DuBois American civil rights leaders The NAACP ■ 1909, reformers formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to fight for African-American equality –DuBios ran (The Crisis) publication to call attention to the cause –The NAACP used lawsuits to fight segregation laws & voting restrictions Reforms for African-Americans ■ Unlike women, African-Americans did not see significant changes: –African-American reformers failed to convince state or national politicians to offer equality –By the end of the Progressive Era, segregation & lynching were common throughout the South & in many parts of the U.S. ■The End Closure Activity ■ Examine excerpts of speeches by Washington & DuBois –What is the main idea of each? –In one sentence, summarize the approach of Washington & DuBois regarding civil rights –Whose approach was more appropriate for the early 20th century? Why?