The Hundred Years* War and the Plague

Mr. Morris
World History
Great Schism
John Wycliffe
Jan Hus
Bubonic plague
Hundred Years’ War
Joan of Arc
1300 – After King Philip IV of France became
stronger than bishops, Pope Boniface VIII told
him that kings must always obey the pope
Philip held him prisoner and planned to bring him
to trial
Pope died soon after but never again was a pope
able to force monarchs to obey him
After Boniface died, Philip was able to get a
French person elected pope
Clement V, the new pope, moved Church
headquarters from Rome to Avignon, France
 Church in Avignon for the next 70 years
 Badly weakened the Church
After the death of Pope Gregory IX, Urban VI, an
Italian, was elected pope
 No one liked him, and they chose another pope a few
months later
The other pope chosen was Clement VII
This meant that there were two popes
French pope in Avignon, Italian pope in Rome
Each excommunicated the other and claimed that
they were false
Created the Great Schism
Eventually a third pope was named
All three forced to resign and a single pope was
finally restored, but the office of pope was weakened
John Wycliffe, an Englishman, preached that
Jesus was the true head of the church
Made the pope even weaker
 Upset with the wealth and status most clergy had
 Bible was the final authority for Christian life
Jan Hus also said that the Bible had more
authority than the pope
Excommunicated, captured, and burned at the stake
In the mid-1300s Asia, North Africa, and
Europe was stricken by the bubonic plague, a
deadly epidemic
1/3 to 1/2 of Europe dead
 Tore people apart and caused many to abandon
loved ones
Began in Asia and travelled west on trade
1347 – came to Europe on a ship in Sicily
 Black Death – black spots on the skin
 Up through Italy into the rest of Europe
 All through Europe in four years
 75% of those infected died
 25 million dead in Europe, 25 million more in Asia
 Pg. 400
The manor system fell apart during the plague
Populations decreased in large amounts
 Trade declined, higher prices
 Serfs left manors in order to get more money
 Nobles resisted calls for higher pay, led to revolts
 Jews took the blame for the plague and were driven
out of towns and/or killed
 Church lost credibility; prayers didn’t stop the
France and England fought for over a century
during this time as well
Edward III, an Englishman, claimed the French
throne after the death of the last Capetian king
 Invaded and started a war that was on and off from
1337 to 1453
 French were eventually able to push the English out
of France
 Changed how wars were fought; no more chivalry
Longbow introduced by the English
1346 – Battle of Crecy longbowmen routed a French
force three times its size using the longbow
 The time of heavily armored knights was ending
Later proved a successful tactic in the battles of
Poitiers and Agincourt
No more chivalry, heavy armor made escape
After France and England reached an
agreement, a teenager in France was moved by
God to save France
Wanted Charles VII to be king of France
 Led an attack on a fort near Orleans and led the
French to victory
 Got Charles crowned king
 Later captured by the English and condemned to
death by the church as a witch and heretic
 Burned at the stake, Charles did nothing to help
When the war ended in 1453, both sides had
major changes
Nationalism in both countries; king was a national
leader that led the country in a fight for glory
 Power of the French monarch grew
 In England, the War of the Roses had two noble
families fighting one another for the throne
 This was the end of the Middle Ages, as faith in the
church and the code of chivalry were both

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