Indian Agriculture * An Overview - The Bapatla College of Arts

Report
Indian Agriculture – An Overview
Department of Economics
Bapatla College of Arts & Science
Some facts….
Total calorie requirement will go up from
2495 to 3000
Food grain production would need to
increase by
5.5 MT annually
By 2050 global population
will rise to 9 billion….out of
which
1.7 billion will
be in India alone
Currently..
52% of our population is involved in
Agriculture....
yet it contributes just 13.7% to India’s GDP
Demand for high-value food commodities will go up
by > 100% due to migration of people into
cities, increased wealth, shift towards diets rich in
protein
Growing resource constraints
Produce more with less…
Land | Water | Labor
•
•
Much of India’s total arable area already in use (46%)
Most remaining land has serious soil and terrain constraints
Arable Land (ha) per person
0.9
Most populous countries have
least room to expand
Hectare of Arable Land
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Brazil
Russia
India
China
Source: UN and FAO, 2005
Indonesia
USA
Mexico
South
Africa
Zimbabwe
There is also the problem of….
Decreasing size of landholding
86% growers in
They cultivate 44% of
the land and contribute
50% to farm output
Landholding declined
from 2.30ha in the 70s
to 1.32 ha in 2000-01
Average size would be a
mere 0.68 ha in 2020
and 0.32 ha in 2030
India are smallholders
And the degradation of the production
environment….
Soil erosion has degraded 120.72 million
ha of land in India
8.4 million ha has soil salinity and
water-logging
Water-table & water quality
deteriorating
Green-revolution belt exhibiting problems
owing to over-exploitation and
mismanagement of soil-and-water
resources
Produce more with less…
Land | Water | Labor
Agriculture is India’s
largest user of water
>40% lost to
inefficient practices
Nearly 50%
agricultural land is rainfed
Source: UN-Water and FAO
Produce more with less…
Land | Water | Labor
Farm demographics- aging
population and migration to
cities influence labor availability
High-tech machines, complex
production processes and strict
production regulations require
skilled labor
Source: UN-Water and FAO
Indian Agriculture
 India agriculture has an extensive background which goes back to
10 thousand years. At present, in terms of agricultural production,
the country holds the second position all over the world.
 Indian Agriculture has made rapid strides since independence;
 From food shortages and import to self-sufficiency and exports.
 From subsistence farming to intensive and technology led cultivation.
 Today , India is the front ranking producer of many crops in the
world.
 Ushered in through the green, white, blue and yellow revolutions
Indian Agriculture – Respective Global Rank
Total Area
Irrigated Area
Population
Economically Active population
Total Cereals
Wheat
Rice
Coarse grains
Total Pulses
Oil Seeds
Fruits and Vegetables
Implements (Tractors)
Milk
Live Stock (castles, Buffaloes)
7th
1st
2nd
2nd
3rd
2nd
2nd
4th
1st
2nd
2nd
3rd
1st
1st
Indian Agriculture- Some Facts
● Contributes to 14% of GDP
● Provides food to 1.25 Billion people
● Sustains 65% of the population : helps alleviate poverty
● Produces 51 major Crops
● Provides Raw Material to Industries
● Contributes to 1/6th of the export earnings
● Huge bio-diversity : 46,000 species of plants & 86,000 species of animals Largest producer in the world
of pulses , tea , and milk
● India was largest exporter of rice and guar gum, and second largest exporter of cotton and beef (buffalo
meat).
● Second Largest producer of fruits & vegetables,wheat,rice,groundnut & sugarcane.
● Our major imports: edible oils (US $11 billion) and pulses (about US $ 3 billion).
Agriculture productivity in India - 1970 to 2010
Average YIELD, 19701971
Average YIELD, 19901991
Average YIELD, 2010–
2011
kilogram per hectare
kilogram per hectare
kilogram per hectare
Rice
1123
1740
2240
Wheat
1307
2281
2938
Pulses
524
578
689
Oilseeds
579
771
1325
Sugarcane
48322
65395
68596
Tea
1182
1652
1669
Cotton
106
225
510
Crop
Indian Agriculture – Major Crop Areas
Total Geographical Area - 328 million
hectares
Net Area sown - 142 million hectares
Gross Cropped Area – 190.8 million
hectares
Major Crop Production;
Rice
106 million tonnes
Wheat
96 million tonnes
Coarse Cereals
41 million tonnes
Pulses
20 million tonnes
Oilseeds
20.9 million tonnes
Sugarcane
29.9 million tonnes
Indian Agriculture – Strong regional variations in yield
Average farm yield in
Bihar
Average farm yield in
Karnataka
Average farm yield in
Punjab
kilogram per hectare
kilogram per hectare
kilogram per hectare
Wheat
2020
N.A
3880
Rice
1370
2380
3130
Pulses
610
470
820
Oil seeds
620
680
1200
Sugarcane
45510
79560
65300
Crop
Indian Agriculture – Present Scenario (SWOT)
● STRENGTHS
- Rich Bio-diversity
- Arable land
- Climate
- Strong and well dispersed research
and extension system
● OPPORTUNITIES
- Bridgeable yield crops
- Exports
- Agro-based Industry
- Horticulture
- Untapped potential in the North
Eastern part of India
● WEAKNESS
- Fragmentation of land
- Low Technology Inputs
- Unsustainable Water Management
- Poor Infrastructure
- Low value addition
● THREATS
- Unsustainable Resource Use
- Unsustainable Regional
Development
- Imports
- small and shrinking holding size
(1.16 ha in 2010-11);
- climate variability...high risk.
But the future is safe and optimistic for the next decade and more
10 challenges faced by agriculture in India
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Small and fragmented land holdings
Manures, Fertilizers and Biocides
Shortage of good quality Seeds for poor peasants
Problem of Irrigation
Lack of mechanization
Soil erosion
Agricultural marketing
Inadequate storage facilities
Inadequate transport
Scarcity of capital
ThankYou!

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