Appropriate use of Electronic Media in the Classroom: Risks & Benefits Brandy Close, M. Ed. OSU-CHS Office of Educational Development Objectives • Discuss copyright & fair use of electronic media/content in education • Utilize best practices in the application of social media in higher education • Determine appropriate use of mobile and electronic devices in the classroom • Discuss proposed digital media guidelines specific to OSU-CHS Copyright/Fair Use: Course Materials Who possesses Copyright? • Textbook publisher • Author of scholarly article • Author of a blog or forum • An artist • Photographer • Email author Scenario: A professor is charged by his/her chair with developing an online course entitled “Introduction to Business Law”. In developing the course, he/she wants to include a graphic on the main page (the author, like many other online course developers, has done this while developing courses). They choose as a graphic the symbol of our legal system, Lady Justice. A search of graphics on a popular search engine with the phrase “Lady Justice” yields over 70,000 images. From these, they could pick an image, copy and save it to their computer, then paste it onto their course site. Assume they also wish to include an excerpt, approximately five pages of a fifteen page article, on their course site from the Harvard Business Review (HBR), which is available online. They could easily download an article from the HBR by copying it from the online website, pasting the pertinent five pages to a word file, and uploading it onto their course site as a word document. Both the graphic and the article could be taken without knowledge or permission of the copyright holders. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html The “Fair-Use Exception”: • Academics are privileged to make use of intellectual property without permission of the copyright holder • Congress approves the practice of making “multiple copies for classroom use” • Exists as a policy because it is considered to promote the progress of knowledge, science, and art • Professor may use another’s work and expand on it or use it to promote further knowledge http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html The Fair Use Test The character of the use: • use serves the primary purpose of promoting knowledge • Use is transformative- the less derivative the product the more likely it is qualifies under fair use • Use is for commercial purpose- will likely not qualify under fair use http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html The nature of the copyrighted work: • Is copyrighted work published or unpublished?- if published, fair use is likely upheld -Unpublished work tends to be more private (emails, manuscripts, etc.) • Is the copyrighted work purely creative?- if so, fair use is less likely qualify • Is the copyrighted work purely informative?- if so, fair use likely qualifies http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html The proportion of the copyrighted work used: • Utilizing higher proportions of copyrighted material decreases the likelihood of qualifying under fair use - Small percentages of work can disqualify fair use as well: “heart of the work” describes minimal uses yet form the essence of the work • Article: 5-15 pages or 20 % falls beyond the outer limits of fair use http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html The effect of the fair use on market for the copyrighted work: • Distribution of copyrighted material inhibits author’s possibilities of selling his/her work in that market- disqualified under fair use • Academic articles are seldomly written for profit, but academic journals publish for profit- http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html Scenario Conclusion: The hypothetical business law professor’s use of the copyrighted materials for her course site would probably not be covered by fair use. She used purely creative material, did little transformative work on one item, none on the other, used the entire copyrighted work in one case and one third of an article in another, and she has quite likely affected the market at her university for at least one of works, possibly both. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html Issues Regarding The Fair Use Test • Fair use cannot be analyzed in a simple way • The law of copyright is in a state of flux • No statute that establishes a certain percentage, pages, or distribution (# of students) ensuring fair use • Liability typically falls upon the university when a professor violates fair use http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter144/wiggins144.html Application of Social Media 1. Develop a strategy and set goals • • • • • What type of content will you deliver? How often will you post content? Where will the content come from? Who will be responsible for posting? Develop overarching goals- What do you want to accomplish by using social media? http://mashable.com/2011/10/10/universities-social-media/ 2. Choose Platforms Wisely • Decide which social media best serves your course goals. • Consider your student population-possibly poll students for desired platforms http://mashable.com/2011/10/10/universities-social-media/ 3. Implement Institutional Guidelines • University guidelines ensure consistency • Guidelines vary among institutions • Various Institutions’ Social Media Guidelines: http://doteduguru.com/id6144-social-media-policy-resource-guidefrom-simtech10.html http://mashable.com/2011/10/10/universities-social-media/ 4. Be Consistent • Using social media is an extension of the university’s brand • Consider your voice- avoid sarcastic, inappropriate, or personal responses http://mashable.com/2011/10/10/universities-social-media/ Using Mobile and Electronic Devices in the Classroom • Younger generations own, use, and embrace mobile devices • Students enter higher education expecting the use of mobile devices in their learning • Higher education institutions expect utilization of mobile devices in instruction and communication • Create syllabus language and guidelines for laptop use and for cell phone use (depending upon your class, these may be separate). • Student signed social media contract • Determine consequences for violation of contract http://otl.du.edu/teaching-resources/managing-mobile-devices-in-the-classroom/ Social Media Guidelines at OSU-CHS • Be Transparent- be honest about your identity and state the purpose of your use of digital media • Protect Your Privacy and that of Studentsreview settings to limit information available to public • Protect Your Sites- share passwords or access with only those who need access • Offer Values to Others- be sure there is a need for the use of the digital platform • Engage Like it is a Conversation- engage with questions and comments that are open-ended; invite responses and encourage comments • Respect Others- respect differing opinions and spirited debates • Keep Your Engagement Clean and Tastefulavoid offensive language or photos • Adhere to Legal or Regulatory Requirementsavoid sharing proprietary or confidential information • Do Not Speak or State a Position On Behalf of the University Without Prior Approval- OSUCHS cannot take a position on a variety of topics (i.e. political candidates) • No Alcohol or Drugs Allowed- the University's alcohol and drug policy applies online (avoid posting content or images involving these substances) Questions????