Future Challenges for Australia Powerpoint

Report
Future Challenges For
Australia
Australia In Its Regional And Global Contexts
Stage 5 Geography Syllabus 5A4
Syllabus Agenda
 current and future population trends:
 growth rates, age structure and spatial distribution
 government population policies to manage population
growth
 implications of population trends:
 ecological sustainability
 population movement and urban planning
Introduction

Australia is an isolated continent with one of the lowest population
densities and highest living standards in the world. This presents
both challenges and opportunities to our country and its leaders.

With the current global population of nearly 7 billion set to reach 9
billion by 2050, overpopulation threatens the quality of life for
people everywhere.

A sustainable and peaceful Australian and world population can
only be achieved by balancing the needs of all people with the global
environment in which we all live. By developing informed opinions
geographers can make decisions that will help create a positive
future.
(a) Learn the Lingo
Go to:
 www.studyismybuddy.com
 10G103 Geography tab
 Download the learn the lingo document
 Research the meaning of the terms detailed
Learn the Lingo
Key Word
Definition
Asylum Seeker
an individual who seeks refuge in a foreign
country, usually due to religious or political
persecution
Demography
the study of human population characteristics
and patterns
Ecological
Sustainability
For humans it is the potential for long-term
maintenance of well being, which in turn depends on
the well being of the natural world and the responsible
use of natural resources.
Emigrant
someone who leaves one country to settle in
another
Fertility Rate
the average number of babies born to a woman
during her reproductive years
Lingo continued
Key Word
Definition
Immigrant
a person who migrates to another country
permanently
Infrastructure
facilities and systems that serve a country,
city or area, including transport and communication
systems, power plants, hospitals and schools
LGA
Local Government Area
Mortality Rate
The number of deaths within the population
Net Migration
The difference between the number of people moving into
and out of the country
Population
Density
number of people per unit area, usually people per square
kilometre
Reconciliation
the process of understanding and building
the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous
Australians
Lingo continued
Key Word
Definitions
Refugee
a person who flees their country in search of
refuge in times of war, famine, political
oppression or religious
persecution
Superannuation
a pension-like program that is organised by
employers for the benefit of their employees to
ensure that they have enough money to fund
their retirement
Spatial Distribution
Suburbanisation
urban growth caused by the creation of
new suburbs at the outer edges of the city
Lingo continued
Key Word
Definitions
Temporary protection visa
a visa to Australia for asylum seekers
who arrive in Australia without
authorisation and are assessed by the
Department of Immigration and
Citizenship to be refugees, which
allows them to stay a set amount of
time
Australian Demography
 What is demography?
 Three main components of demography:

Populations size

Structure

Distribution
 Studying population change involves considering social,
economic and environmental issues
 The Australian Bureau of Statistics will be conducting a
census in 2011 (held every 5 years)
(a) Australian Bureau of
Statistics (ABS)

The ABS is a very important source of reliable information for students

Go to www.abs.gov.au

National statistics

Population of Australia –The Population Clock
Search for the following information:

1
What is the current population of Australia?
2
How frequently is there a birth?
3
How frequently is there a death?
4
What is the speed of the net gain of one international migration
5
How frequently is there a total population increase? And by how much?
6
Find one country with a population growth rate higher than Australia’s and
one population with a population growth rate lower than Australia’s. For
each country write a paragraph explaining the growth rate.
Australia’s Population
Growth
 Australia’s population has grown from 3.8 million in
1901 to over 22.5 million in 2011
 Australia’s current population growth rate is 1.8%
(2010) – this means for every 1000 people in Australia
that year an extra 18 were added
Factors Affecting Population
Growth
 1. The fertility rate – the average number of children
born to each woman of child-bearing age
 2. The mortality rate – the number of deaths within
the population
 3. Net migration – the difference between the number
of immigrants and emigrants.
About The Fertility Rate In
Australia
 Without MIGRATION the fertility rate needs to be
2:1 for one generation to replace the next.
 Therefore with Australia’s fertility rate at 1.8% and
without migration, Australia’s population would
gradually decrease in size
Migration + Babies = Population
Babies Only = Population
What Is The Optimum Population?
Environmentalists will argue the population is already too great for the resources available and the
environment is being degraded
Others argue for an increased population for reasons of national security and economic growth
To Increase Or To Decrease That
Is The Question……..
 Australia needs a larger
population to prosper in
the decades ahead, to
avoid economic
stagnation, to go forward
as a dynamic, globally
linked economy, and to
ensure high living
standards and high-quality
jobs. (Steve Bracks Victorian
Premier)
 So what’s in population
growth for the average
Australian? Nothing,
except higher house prices
and rents, more congested
roads and transport, more
pollution and waste, more
apartment blocks, more
crowds everywhere, more
pressure on our parks and
nature reserves—AND, of
course, less water per
capita. (Tim Gosling, freelance
science journalist with an interest
in population and environment)
What do you think?
(a) Demography Recap
1.
What is demography?
2.
Why is demography an important aspect of Geography?
3.
Which organisation in Australia produces demographic statistics?
4.
When did Australia’s population reach 20 million?
5.
How does the population growth rate compare with rates in other countries?
6.
Which three factors influence population growth rate?
7.
What is the fertility replacement rate?
8.
What is Australia’s current fertility rate?
9.
Outline one argument for increasing the size of population in Australia.
10.
Outline one argument for reducing the population size in Australia.
Australia’s Ageing
Population
Changing Population
Structure
 It is predicted that in Australia by 2051:
 The number of people aged over 65 years will increase
from the current 2.5 million to around 7.2 million
 The proportion of people aged over 65 years will grow
from the current 13% to 25% of the population
 The proportion of people over 85 years will grow from
the current 1.4% to approximately 6%
Reasons For The Change In The
Structure Of Australia’s
Population
1. A fall in the fertility rate due to women having fewer
children
2. The increase in life expectancy due to improved health
and medical care
3. The fact that the baby boomers (those born 1945-1965)
are now reaching retirement age
Retiring baby boomers
 Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers
Challenges
Opportunities
Better educated retirees will have a
continued interest in learning,
leading to an increased demand for adult
education courses
•Increased economic and social
benefits to the community
• Jobs created in adult education
• Larger number of skilled volunteers
Changing health needs as more people
reach greater ages, increasing demand for
medical services and aged care
•Stimulus for medical research
•More jobs in health and medical services
•Development of new approaches to
provide support for aged people in their
own homes
Retiring baby boomers
 Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers
Challenges
Opportunities
More people living alone, particularly
women, creating possible social isolation
•Increased community development
•New thinking about housing design
•Transport services and communications
technology that are age friendly
More people entering old age without
sufficient financial resources, putting
pressure on government to provide
pensions
•Ongoing training and professional
development of mature-aged workers
•More flexible working conditions to
facilitate gradual transition from work to
retirement
•Increased financial literacy in the
population
Government Policies
 The local, state and federal government in Australia
have developed strategies, plans and policies to
support aged communities
 Local level – action plans are designed to increase
awareness, encourage action and improve information
about the ageing issue
 State level – The NSW Ministerial Advisory
Committee on Ageing advises the Minister for Ageing
on matters affecting the needs and interests of older
people in the state, and on the impact of the ageing
population
Government Policies
 Federal level – Compulsory superannuation has been
introduced to reduce the number of people that will be
dependent on government pensions
 The federal government encourages people to continue
working beyond retirement ages
(a) Australia’s ageing population Computer Activities
 Go to website
http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php
Compare Australia’s changing population structure
with other countries
 Conduct research to find out whether migration is the
answer to Australia’s ageing population, and present
findings in written or digital format
 Select a developed country other than Australia with
an ageing population and research the ways in which
they are preparing for the challenge. Suggest one of
the strategies that could be used in Australia
Population Distribution
 Australia’s population is concentrated in urban areas
near the coast.
 More than 85% of the population already live within
50 kilometres of the coast with the trend continuing
 This puts increasing pressure on coastal environments
and leaving many inland rural areas in decline – this
process is known as ‘sea change’
Unsustainable Growth In
Coastal Areas
 The rapid increase in population in coastal areas is
causing severe problems for local councils struggling
to provide the necessary infrastructure, particularly
water and sanitation.
 Local services are also put under pressure as the
schools, hospitals and transport systems are not able to
keep up with the increasing demand
Interstate Migration
 Some states and territories are experiencing much
higher growth rates than others.
 Queensland has the highest growth rate and Tasmania
has the slowest
 The current trend is for people to move north to take
advantage of cheaper housing and better job
opportunities as well as climate, lifestyle and
retirement
Rural-Urban migration
 Reasons people move from small inland communities
to larger regional centres and urban areas near the
coast include:
 Changes in farming practices due to new technology
 Loss of traditional industries
 Increasing environmental concerns changing land use
practices
 Decline in rural health and education services due to
centralisation of services
 Greater consumer demands with regard to retail and
leisure provisions
(a) Population Distribution
Activity
 Research The Shire of Crookwell and identify
the challenges it is facing.
 Students can create a visual presentation to
show either the decline of small inland towns
or the growth of coastal developments
 Write the script for an imaginary radio or TV
report in which the interviewer is asking a
young person why they are planning to leave
their small country town and move to the city.
 Once you have written the script perform and
record the interview.
Sustainable Cities
Sydney’s Natural Resources:
WATER
 the aim is to conserve water by reducing water
consumption: Sydney’s population has doubled since
1955 but water consumption has tripled
 Business, government and industry account for 30% of
water use in Sydney
 The benefits of water conservation include:
 Reduces the amount of water taken from lakes and rivers
 Reduces the amount of waste-water created
 Uses less energy to treat and distribute water
 Avoids the need for new dams
Sydney’s Natural Resources:
ENERGY
 the aim is to reduce energy consumption
 Sustainable development will need to be based on
renewable energy sources as people rely heavily on
electrical appliances that provide comfort eg air
conditioners
Sydney’s Natural Resources:
LAND
 New housing developments are occurring and replacing
land to grow food
 ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT
 This is a measure of the amount of land that it would
take to produce the food energy and resources that a
person consumes (calculated at 1.7 hectares per person)
 Average EF for people in Sydney is 7 hectares
(a) Activity
 Find a newspaper article on conservation of water or
energy from the last 12 months

Develop a dot point summary on this article.
 Write a media article outlining the challenges that
Sydney faces in trying to reduce its ecological
footprint.
Urban Planning
Transport
 The population in Australia’s urban areas is expected to
grow by four million between 2005 and 2030.
 Sydney Transport – transport by car is increasing and is
causing worsening air quality and traffic congestion
 Viable transport alternatives are one of the keys to
maintaining the livability of the city.
 The aim is to provide residential areas nearer to work and
leisure facilities and improve public transport to reduce
dependence on cars.
Urban Village
 This modern approach in urban planning seeks to
combine a mixture of land uses and housing types in
community-sized developments within cities.
 These urban villages are located at transport hubs and
are designed to provide a sense of community where
people can live, work and play without having o
commute by car.
(a) Activity
 Create a plan for an urban village to be developed on
land formerly used as old railway sidings. Your plan
needs to include:
 a map,
 illustrations of building designs

promotional material.
 Research the ways a city outside Australia has
addressed the challenge of either transport or urban
sprawl.
Migration
Australia’s Migration Program was initially set up to increase the labour force and
improve national security.
Types of Migrants
 Migrants can become permanent or temporary
residents of Australia and enter under one of the
following categories:
 Employer sponsored
 Business people
 Family members
 Skilled workers
 Humanitarian entrants or refugees
(a) Activity
 Use the abs website (www.abs.gov.au) to find a table
showing the main countries of birth of Australia’s
population.
 Select four countries from your table and develop a
composite line graph to plot the data. Explain the
trends shown in the graph.
 Develop a poster to illustrate the five types of
programs that allow migrants to enter Australia.
Refugees and Human Rights
What are Human Rights?
 Human rights are those rights that all people have
because they are human beings.
 The recognition that all people should be treated in a
decent, equal and just manner led to the United
Nations Declaration of Human Rights on 10 December
1948.
Who is a Refugee?
 The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of
Refugees (Article 1) defines a refugee as:
 A person who is outside his/her country of nationality or
habitual residence; has a well founded fear of persecution
because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in
a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable
or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that
country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.
Asylum-Seeker or Refugee?
 An asylum-seeker is a person who has
arrived in another country seeking
safety and is waiting for recognition
as a refugee.
 For this reason there is no such thing
as an illegal asylum-seeker.

Often these people arrive without
documents because they have fled
from regimes that would not provide
them or they have not had the time
nor means to acquire them.
Processing of asylumseekers
 Handled by the Department of Immigration and
Citizenship
 If they arrive in an authorised manner eg visa, they
are generally allowed to remain in the community
while their applications are processed
 If they arrive in an unauthorised manner they are
confined in detention centres until they are granted a
visa to remain in Australia, or they leave the country,
voluntarily or otherwise.
Temporary v Permanent
Visas
 Asylum-seekers entering the country without
authority receive a 3 year temporary protection visa if
their application for refugee status is successful
 Humanitarian grounds – permanent protection visas
can be granted to people on humanitarian grounds
and enables family to be reunited.
(a) Activity
 Find a website that deals with issues concerning
refugees in Australia and:
 Analyse the site in terms of reliability, accuracy, bias
and ethics.
 Demonstrate the site to the class giving an oral account
of your analysis.
 Find a newspaper article that relates to a concept in
the slides.
The Pacific Solution
 The Tampa incident occurred in 2001
 Afghan asylum-seekers were rescued from a sinking
Indonesian boat in international waters.
 The Australian government refused to allow the ship
to proceed to Christmas Island for processing
 After negotiations the people were transferred to the
Pacific island of Nauru
The Pacific Solution
 Diverting asylum-seekers to Pacific islands is known
as the ‘Pacific Solution’.
 The Australian government provided Nauru with an
aid package worth $20 million in return for agreeing
to accept these people
 New law – asylum-seekers can only apply for refugee
status if they reach the mainland otherwise they reside
in a detention facility on Christmas Island
Detention Centres
 Immigration Transit Accommodation Centres have
been set up in Brisbane, Melbourne and Adelaide for
those spending a short time in detention and regarded
as a low-security risk
 Handout – Refugees and detention centres in Australia
(GF2 Teacher Resource p29-30)
Detention Centres activities
 INTERNET ACTIVITY
 Research the treatment of refugees in one developed
country and compare the treatment there with the
treatment provided by Australia.
 Develop an annotated map of Australia to illustrate the
location of Australian detention centres. Describe the
distribution of Australian detention centres.
 Compose a letter to the editor of a national newspaper
expressing your opinion on the detention of asylumseekers.
Reconciliation
Definition
 The process of understanding and restoring a
relationship, especially between Australian Indigenous
peoples and the wider community
 Reconciliation is a community-based movement
involving Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians
 Handout – Indigenous Land Rights (GF2 Teacher Resource
p19-20)

Reconciliation in
Australia
Is based on three main ideas:

RECOGNITION that Indigenous people are the traditional
owners of the land and have a unique relationship with the
physical environment

JUSTICE – Past government policies have been detrimental
to Aboriginal populations eg Stolen generation leading to
social problems

HEALING – improving living conditions and quality of life
for all Australians, but especially the disadvantaged
Reconciliation today
 The Current Situation
 Individuals promoting reconciliation include:
 Peter Garrett (politician)
 John Williamson (singer/songwriter)
 Cathy Freeman (athlete)
 Pat Dodson (priest)
Reconciliation today
 The Current Situation

Groups and organisations involved in reconciliation include:
 Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR)
 Reconciliation Australia
 NSW State Government ensure fair representation of
Aboriginal people on decision-making bodies and ensure
policies and services are relevant and accessible to all people
including Indigenous groups
 Federal government (Rudd) formally apologised for the wrongs
committed by white Australians towards the Indigenous people
Responses to
Reconciliation
 Other Nations experiencing Indigenous and
reconciliation issues include:
 New Zealand
 Bolivia
(a) Activity
 Research how New Zealand and/or Bolivia have dealt
with the issues of reconciliation and Indigenous
people
 Design a reconciliation flag for Australia.
 Explain the relevance of all components in your flag.
 Identify an individual or group involved in
reconciliation.
 Conduct research to express their perspective on the
issue.
Strategies for the Future
 Reconciliation will not be a reality until Indigenous
disadvantage is improved.
 More progress and decision-making needs to be made
in the areas of Indigenous health, education, housing,
employment and land ownership.
 Self-determination is the right to administer one’s own
community which the Aboriginal community
requested in the 1980’s. This proposal has been
declined up to this point in time.

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