Future Challenges For Australia Australia In Its Regional And Global Contexts Stage 5 Geography Syllabus 5A4 Syllabus Agenda current and future population trends: growth rates, age structure and spatial distribution government population policies to manage population growth implications of population trends: ecological sustainability population movement and urban planning Introduction Australia is an isolated continent with one of the lowest population densities and highest living standards in the world. This presents both challenges and opportunities to our country and its leaders. With the current global population of nearly 7 billion set to reach 9 billion by 2050, overpopulation threatens the quality of life for people everywhere. A sustainable and peaceful Australian and world population can only be achieved by balancing the needs of all people with the global environment in which we all live. By developing informed opinions geographers can make decisions that will help create a positive future. (a) Learn the Lingo Go to: www.studyismybuddy.com 10G103 Geography tab Download the learn the lingo document Research the meaning of the terms detailed Learn the Lingo Key Word Definition Asylum Seeker an individual who seeks refuge in a foreign country, usually due to religious or political persecution Demography the study of human population characteristics and patterns Ecological Sustainability For humans it is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which in turn depends on the well being of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources. Emigrant someone who leaves one country to settle in another Fertility Rate the average number of babies born to a woman during her reproductive years Lingo continued Key Word Definition Immigrant a person who migrates to another country permanently Infrastructure facilities and systems that serve a country, city or area, including transport and communication systems, power plants, hospitals and schools LGA Local Government Area Mortality Rate The number of deaths within the population Net Migration The difference between the number of people moving into and out of the country Population Density number of people per unit area, usually people per square kilometre Reconciliation the process of understanding and building the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians Lingo continued Key Word Definitions Refugee a person who flees their country in search of refuge in times of war, famine, political oppression or religious persecution Superannuation a pension-like program that is organised by employers for the benefit of their employees to ensure that they have enough money to fund their retirement Spatial Distribution Suburbanisation urban growth caused by the creation of new suburbs at the outer edges of the city Lingo continued Key Word Definitions Temporary protection visa a visa to Australia for asylum seekers who arrive in Australia without authorisation and are assessed by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship to be refugees, which allows them to stay a set amount of time Australian Demography What is demography? Three main components of demography: Populations size Structure Distribution Studying population change involves considering social, economic and environmental issues The Australian Bureau of Statistics will be conducting a census in 2011 (held every 5 years) (a) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) The ABS is a very important source of reliable information for students Go to www.abs.gov.au National statistics Population of Australia –The Population Clock Search for the following information: 1 What is the current population of Australia? 2 How frequently is there a birth? 3 How frequently is there a death? 4 What is the speed of the net gain of one international migration 5 How frequently is there a total population increase? And by how much? 6 Find one country with a population growth rate higher than Australia’s and one population with a population growth rate lower than Australia’s. For each country write a paragraph explaining the growth rate. Australia’s Population Growth Australia’s population has grown from 3.8 million in 1901 to over 22.5 million in 2011 Australia’s current population growth rate is 1.8% (2010) – this means for every 1000 people in Australia that year an extra 18 were added Factors Affecting Population Growth 1. The fertility rate – the average number of children born to each woman of child-bearing age 2. The mortality rate – the number of deaths within the population 3. Net migration – the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants. About The Fertility Rate In Australia Without MIGRATION the fertility rate needs to be 2:1 for one generation to replace the next. Therefore with Australia’s fertility rate at 1.8% and without migration, Australia’s population would gradually decrease in size Migration + Babies = Population Babies Only = Population What Is The Optimum Population? Environmentalists will argue the population is already too great for the resources available and the environment is being degraded Others argue for an increased population for reasons of national security and economic growth To Increase Or To Decrease That Is The Question…….. Australia needs a larger population to prosper in the decades ahead, to avoid economic stagnation, to go forward as a dynamic, globally linked economy, and to ensure high living standards and high-quality jobs. (Steve Bracks Victorian Premier) So what’s in population growth for the average Australian? Nothing, except higher house prices and rents, more congested roads and transport, more pollution and waste, more apartment blocks, more crowds everywhere, more pressure on our parks and nature reserves—AND, of course, less water per capita. (Tim Gosling, freelance science journalist with an interest in population and environment) What do you think? (a) Demography Recap 1. What is demography? 2. Why is demography an important aspect of Geography? 3. Which organisation in Australia produces demographic statistics? 4. When did Australia’s population reach 20 million? 5. How does the population growth rate compare with rates in other countries? 6. Which three factors influence population growth rate? 7. What is the fertility replacement rate? 8. What is Australia’s current fertility rate? 9. Outline one argument for increasing the size of population in Australia. 10. Outline one argument for reducing the population size in Australia. Australia’s Ageing Population Changing Population Structure It is predicted that in Australia by 2051: The number of people aged over 65 years will increase from the current 2.5 million to around 7.2 million The proportion of people aged over 65 years will grow from the current 13% to 25% of the population The proportion of people over 85 years will grow from the current 1.4% to approximately 6% Reasons For The Change In The Structure Of Australia’s Population 1. A fall in the fertility rate due to women having fewer children 2. The increase in life expectancy due to improved health and medical care 3. The fact that the baby boomers (those born 1945-1965) are now reaching retirement age Retiring baby boomers Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers Challenges Opportunities Better educated retirees will have a continued interest in learning, leading to an increased demand for adult education courses •Increased economic and social benefits to the community • Jobs created in adult education • Larger number of skilled volunteers Changing health needs as more people reach greater ages, increasing demand for medical services and aged care •Stimulus for medical research •More jobs in health and medical services •Development of new approaches to provide support for aged people in their own homes Retiring baby boomers Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers Challenges Opportunities More people living alone, particularly women, creating possible social isolation •Increased community development •New thinking about housing design •Transport services and communications technology that are age friendly More people entering old age without sufficient financial resources, putting pressure on government to provide pensions •Ongoing training and professional development of mature-aged workers •More flexible working conditions to facilitate gradual transition from work to retirement •Increased financial literacy in the population Government Policies The local, state and federal government in Australia have developed strategies, plans and policies to support aged communities Local level – action plans are designed to increase awareness, encourage action and improve information about the ageing issue State level – The NSW Ministerial Advisory Committee on Ageing advises the Minister for Ageing on matters affecting the needs and interests of older people in the state, and on the impact of the ageing population Government Policies Federal level – Compulsory superannuation has been introduced to reduce the number of people that will be dependent on government pensions The federal government encourages people to continue working beyond retirement ages (a) Australia’s ageing population Computer Activities Go to website http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php Compare Australia’s changing population structure with other countries Conduct research to find out whether migration is the answer to Australia’s ageing population, and present findings in written or digital format Select a developed country other than Australia with an ageing population and research the ways in which they are preparing for the challenge. Suggest one of the strategies that could be used in Australia Population Distribution Australia’s population is concentrated in urban areas near the coast. More than 85% of the population already live within 50 kilometres of the coast with the trend continuing This puts increasing pressure on coastal environments and leaving many inland rural areas in decline – this process is known as ‘sea change’ Unsustainable Growth In Coastal Areas The rapid increase in population in coastal areas is causing severe problems for local councils struggling to provide the necessary infrastructure, particularly water and sanitation. Local services are also put under pressure as the schools, hospitals and transport systems are not able to keep up with the increasing demand Interstate Migration Some states and territories are experiencing much higher growth rates than others. Queensland has the highest growth rate and Tasmania has the slowest The current trend is for people to move north to take advantage of cheaper housing and better job opportunities as well as climate, lifestyle and retirement Rural-Urban migration Reasons people move from small inland communities to larger regional centres and urban areas near the coast include: Changes in farming practices due to new technology Loss of traditional industries Increasing environmental concerns changing land use practices Decline in rural health and education services due to centralisation of services Greater consumer demands with regard to retail and leisure provisions (a) Population Distribution Activity Research The Shire of Crookwell and identify the challenges it is facing. Students can create a visual presentation to show either the decline of small inland towns or the growth of coastal developments Write the script for an imaginary radio or TV report in which the interviewer is asking a young person why they are planning to leave their small country town and move to the city. Once you have written the script perform and record the interview. Sustainable Cities Sydney’s Natural Resources: WATER the aim is to conserve water by reducing water consumption: Sydney’s population has doubled since 1955 but water consumption has tripled Business, government and industry account for 30% of water use in Sydney The benefits of water conservation include: Reduces the amount of water taken from lakes and rivers Reduces the amount of waste-water created Uses less energy to treat and distribute water Avoids the need for new dams Sydney’s Natural Resources: ENERGY the aim is to reduce energy consumption Sustainable development will need to be based on renewable energy sources as people rely heavily on electrical appliances that provide comfort eg air conditioners Sydney’s Natural Resources: LAND New housing developments are occurring and replacing land to grow food ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT This is a measure of the amount of land that it would take to produce the food energy and resources that a person consumes (calculated at 1.7 hectares per person) Average EF for people in Sydney is 7 hectares (a) Activity Find a newspaper article on conservation of water or energy from the last 12 months Develop a dot point summary on this article. Write a media article outlining the challenges that Sydney faces in trying to reduce its ecological footprint. Urban Planning Transport The population in Australia’s urban areas is expected to grow by four million between 2005 and 2030. Sydney Transport – transport by car is increasing and is causing worsening air quality and traffic congestion Viable transport alternatives are one of the keys to maintaining the livability of the city. The aim is to provide residential areas nearer to work and leisure facilities and improve public transport to reduce dependence on cars. Urban Village This modern approach in urban planning seeks to combine a mixture of land uses and housing types in community-sized developments within cities. These urban villages are located at transport hubs and are designed to provide a sense of community where people can live, work and play without having o commute by car. (a) Activity Create a plan for an urban village to be developed on land formerly used as old railway sidings. Your plan needs to include: a map, illustrations of building designs promotional material. Research the ways a city outside Australia has addressed the challenge of either transport or urban sprawl. Migration Australia’s Migration Program was initially set up to increase the labour force and improve national security. Types of Migrants Migrants can become permanent or temporary residents of Australia and enter under one of the following categories: Employer sponsored Business people Family members Skilled workers Humanitarian entrants or refugees (a) Activity Use the abs website (www.abs.gov.au) to find a table showing the main countries of birth of Australia’s population. Select four countries from your table and develop a composite line graph to plot the data. Explain the trends shown in the graph. Develop a poster to illustrate the five types of programs that allow migrants to enter Australia. Refugees and Human Rights What are Human Rights? Human rights are those rights that all people have because they are human beings. The recognition that all people should be treated in a decent, equal and just manner led to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights on 10 December 1948. Who is a Refugee? The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Article 1) defines a refugee as: A person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution. Asylum-Seeker or Refugee? An asylum-seeker is a person who has arrived in another country seeking safety and is waiting for recognition as a refugee. For this reason there is no such thing as an illegal asylum-seeker. Often these people arrive without documents because they have fled from regimes that would not provide them or they have not had the time nor means to acquire them. Processing of asylumseekers Handled by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship If they arrive in an authorised manner eg visa, they are generally allowed to remain in the community while their applications are processed If they arrive in an unauthorised manner they are confined in detention centres until they are granted a visa to remain in Australia, or they leave the country, voluntarily or otherwise. Temporary v Permanent Visas Asylum-seekers entering the country without authority receive a 3 year temporary protection visa if their application for refugee status is successful Humanitarian grounds – permanent protection visas can be granted to people on humanitarian grounds and enables family to be reunited. (a) Activity Find a website that deals with issues concerning refugees in Australia and: Analyse the site in terms of reliability, accuracy, bias and ethics. Demonstrate the site to the class giving an oral account of your analysis. Find a newspaper article that relates to a concept in the slides. The Pacific Solution The Tampa incident occurred in 2001 Afghan asylum-seekers were rescued from a sinking Indonesian boat in international waters. The Australian government refused to allow the ship to proceed to Christmas Island for processing After negotiations the people were transferred to the Pacific island of Nauru The Pacific Solution Diverting asylum-seekers to Pacific islands is known as the ‘Pacific Solution’. The Australian government provided Nauru with an aid package worth $20 million in return for agreeing to accept these people New law – asylum-seekers can only apply for refugee status if they reach the mainland otherwise they reside in a detention facility on Christmas Island Detention Centres Immigration Transit Accommodation Centres have been set up in Brisbane, Melbourne and Adelaide for those spending a short time in detention and regarded as a low-security risk Handout – Refugees and detention centres in Australia (GF2 Teacher Resource p29-30) Detention Centres activities INTERNET ACTIVITY Research the treatment of refugees in one developed country and compare the treatment there with the treatment provided by Australia. Develop an annotated map of Australia to illustrate the location of Australian detention centres. Describe the distribution of Australian detention centres. Compose a letter to the editor of a national newspaper expressing your opinion on the detention of asylumseekers. Reconciliation Definition The process of understanding and restoring a relationship, especially between Australian Indigenous peoples and the wider community Reconciliation is a community-based movement involving Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians Handout – Indigenous Land Rights (GF2 Teacher Resource p19-20) Reconciliation in Australia Is based on three main ideas: RECOGNITION that Indigenous people are the traditional owners of the land and have a unique relationship with the physical environment JUSTICE – Past government policies have been detrimental to Aboriginal populations eg Stolen generation leading to social problems HEALING – improving living conditions and quality of life for all Australians, but especially the disadvantaged Reconciliation today The Current Situation Individuals promoting reconciliation include: Peter Garrett (politician) John Williamson (singer/songwriter) Cathy Freeman (athlete) Pat Dodson (priest) Reconciliation today The Current Situation Groups and organisations involved in reconciliation include: Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR) Reconciliation Australia NSW State Government ensure fair representation of Aboriginal people on decision-making bodies and ensure policies and services are relevant and accessible to all people including Indigenous groups Federal government (Rudd) formally apologised for the wrongs committed by white Australians towards the Indigenous people Responses to Reconciliation Other Nations experiencing Indigenous and reconciliation issues include: New Zealand Bolivia (a) Activity Research how New Zealand and/or Bolivia have dealt with the issues of reconciliation and Indigenous people Design a reconciliation flag for Australia. Explain the relevance of all components in your flag. Identify an individual or group involved in reconciliation. Conduct research to express their perspective on the issue. Strategies for the Future Reconciliation will not be a reality until Indigenous disadvantage is improved. More progress and decision-making needs to be made in the areas of Indigenous health, education, housing, employment and land ownership. Self-determination is the right to administer one’s own community which the Aboriginal community requested in the 1980’s. This proposal has been declined up to this point in time.