6.12 Class PPT Biodiversity lab day 2

Report
Biodiversity Lab: Day 2 Molecular
Evidence
Ms. Blalock, Ms. Hartsell and Mr.
Luckman
Do Now
• What are some techniques that you can use
to determine if two species are similar?
AIM
• How can we use molecular evidence to
determine the relationships between species?
Agenda
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Do Now
INM: Paper Chromatography
Test 1: Paper Chromatography
Test 2: Indication Test for Enzyme M
Test 3: Translating DNA
Exit Ticket
Molecular Evidence
•
Yesterday in lab, we used structural evidence to determine the similarities
between Botana curus and three other unknown Species X, Y and Z
•
Today in lab, we will be using molecular evidence to determine which of
the Species (X, Y or Z) is most similar to Botana curus.
•
Molecular evidence just refers to looking at the similarities and differences of
different species based on the molecules (pigments, proteins, DNA) that
make up each of the species.
•
We will be performing three different tests to collect this molecular evidence
– Paper Chromatography
– Indication Test for Enzyme M
– Translating DNA into amino acids
Making observations
• Observations will play a key role in collecting molecular
evidence.
• Specifically, in the Paper Chromatography and Enzyme M
tests, observations will be made and recorded about the
nature of the reactions that occur.
INM: What is paper chromatography?
• Paper chromatography is a procedure used to
separate substances in a mixture.
• In this lab, this mixture is a solution of liquid
pigments containing different kinds of
chlorophyll
– It is referred to as “plant extract”
Turn and Talk
• What is the importance of chlorophyll to a
plant?
Separation of pigments
• The different chlorophyll and other
photosynthetic pigments separate out into
patterns called “bands”
• These bands are made up of different colors.
How does it work?
Each of the green dots (A, B, C and D) represent plant
extract each being from a different species of plant.
What do the results tell you?
• Plant species that are genetically similar will
have similar colors and banding patterns.
Test 1: Paper Chromatography
• Directions: Using the procedure and PowerPoint
titled “ Chromatography”, go through the process
of paper chromatography.
• Purpose: To determine which Species (X, Y or Z)
has similar colors and banding patterns as Botana
curus.
• Task: Complete steps 1-7 for the next 15 minutes
Indication Test of enzyme M
Botana curus is a plant that produces curol, which is a
compound used to treat certain kinds of cancer.
There exists no good tests to indicate the presence of
curol in plants.
However, if a plant produces the enzyme called “enzyme
M”, this is a good indication that the plant also
produces curol
Presence of enzyme M = presence of curol
What happens if enzyme M is present?
• Just like iodine is an indicator for starch, there
exists an indicator for enzyme M.
• When this indicator comes into contact with a
substance that contains enzyme M, the solution
will “fizz” or bubble up.
• This means that if enzyme M is NOT present then
there will be no reaction
– In other words, nothing will happen
Making connections (3 min)
• How do you predict the plant extract from
Botana curus will react with the enzyme M
indicator? Provide reasoning for your
response
• Return to the second page of your guided
notes to answer this question.
Test 2: Indication of enzyme M
• Directions: Following the instructions in your
procedure packet, determine which species
(X, Y or Z) contains enzyme M
• Data: Once you have completed the test,
record answers in Table 1 under “Indication of
enzyme M” column
• You will have 12 minutes to complete this
test.
Test 3: Translating DNA
• Directions: Following the instructions in your
procedure packet, determine which Species (X, Y
or Z) contains the most similar amino acid
sequence to Botana curus.
• Data: Record results in Table 1 under “
Translating DNA”
• Time: You will have 10 minutes to complete this
test.
Exit Ticket
Finish Early?
• Which of the molecular tests ran today do you
think is the most accurate at determining
relationships between species?
• Provide reasoning for your response.
Finish early?
• What was the reasoning behind testing each
species for enzyme M?
• How did you know if enzyme M was present?
Finish Early?
• How does knowing the amino acid sequence
help determine the relationship between
species?
• Explain the relationship between a gene and a
protein.

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