Biodiversity Lab: Day 2 Molecular Evidence Ms. Blalock, Ms. Hartsell and Mr. Luckman Do Now • What are some techniques that you can use to determine if two species are similar? AIM • How can we use molecular evidence to determine the relationships between species? Agenda • • • • • • Do Now INM: Paper Chromatography Test 1: Paper Chromatography Test 2: Indication Test for Enzyme M Test 3: Translating DNA Exit Ticket Molecular Evidence • Yesterday in lab, we used structural evidence to determine the similarities between Botana curus and three other unknown Species X, Y and Z • Today in lab, we will be using molecular evidence to determine which of the Species (X, Y or Z) is most similar to Botana curus. • Molecular evidence just refers to looking at the similarities and differences of different species based on the molecules (pigments, proteins, DNA) that make up each of the species. • We will be performing three different tests to collect this molecular evidence – Paper Chromatography – Indication Test for Enzyme M – Translating DNA into amino acids Making observations • Observations will play a key role in collecting molecular evidence. • Specifically, in the Paper Chromatography and Enzyme M tests, observations will be made and recorded about the nature of the reactions that occur. INM: What is paper chromatography? • Paper chromatography is a procedure used to separate substances in a mixture. • In this lab, this mixture is a solution of liquid pigments containing different kinds of chlorophyll – It is referred to as “plant extract” Turn and Talk • What is the importance of chlorophyll to a plant? Separation of pigments • The different chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments separate out into patterns called “bands” • These bands are made up of different colors. How does it work? Each of the green dots (A, B, C and D) represent plant extract each being from a different species of plant. What do the results tell you? • Plant species that are genetically similar will have similar colors and banding patterns. Test 1: Paper Chromatography • Directions: Using the procedure and PowerPoint titled “ Chromatography”, go through the process of paper chromatography. • Purpose: To determine which Species (X, Y or Z) has similar colors and banding patterns as Botana curus. • Task: Complete steps 1-7 for the next 15 minutes Indication Test of enzyme M Botana curus is a plant that produces curol, which is a compound used to treat certain kinds of cancer. There exists no good tests to indicate the presence of curol in plants. However, if a plant produces the enzyme called “enzyme M”, this is a good indication that the plant also produces curol Presence of enzyme M = presence of curol What happens if enzyme M is present? • Just like iodine is an indicator for starch, there exists an indicator for enzyme M. • When this indicator comes into contact with a substance that contains enzyme M, the solution will “fizz” or bubble up. • This means that if enzyme M is NOT present then there will be no reaction – In other words, nothing will happen Making connections (3 min) • How do you predict the plant extract from Botana curus will react with the enzyme M indicator? Provide reasoning for your response • Return to the second page of your guided notes to answer this question. Test 2: Indication of enzyme M • Directions: Following the instructions in your procedure packet, determine which species (X, Y or Z) contains enzyme M • Data: Once you have completed the test, record answers in Table 1 under “Indication of enzyme M” column • You will have 12 minutes to complete this test. Test 3: Translating DNA • Directions: Following the instructions in your procedure packet, determine which Species (X, Y or Z) contains the most similar amino acid sequence to Botana curus. • Data: Record results in Table 1 under “ Translating DNA” • Time: You will have 10 minutes to complete this test. Exit Ticket Finish Early? • Which of the molecular tests ran today do you think is the most accurate at determining relationships between species? • Provide reasoning for your response. Finish early? • What was the reasoning behind testing each species for enzyme M? • How did you know if enzyme M was present? Finish Early? • How does knowing the amino acid sequence help determine the relationship between species? • Explain the relationship between a gene and a protein.