6.12 Class PPT Biodiversity lab day 2

Biodiversity Lab: Day 2 Molecular
Ms. Blalock, Ms. Hartsell and Mr.
Do Now
• What are some techniques that you can use
to determine if two species are similar?
• How can we use molecular evidence to
determine the relationships between species?
Do Now
INM: Paper Chromatography
Test 1: Paper Chromatography
Test 2: Indication Test for Enzyme M
Test 3: Translating DNA
Exit Ticket
Molecular Evidence
Yesterday in lab, we used structural evidence to determine the similarities
between Botana curus and three other unknown Species X, Y and Z
Today in lab, we will be using molecular evidence to determine which of
the Species (X, Y or Z) is most similar to Botana curus.
Molecular evidence just refers to looking at the similarities and differences of
different species based on the molecules (pigments, proteins, DNA) that
make up each of the species.
We will be performing three different tests to collect this molecular evidence
– Paper Chromatography
– Indication Test for Enzyme M
– Translating DNA into amino acids
Making observations
• Observations will play a key role in collecting molecular
• Specifically, in the Paper Chromatography and Enzyme M
tests, observations will be made and recorded about the
nature of the reactions that occur.
INM: What is paper chromatography?
• Paper chromatography is a procedure used to
separate substances in a mixture.
• In this lab, this mixture is a solution of liquid
pigments containing different kinds of
– It is referred to as “plant extract”
Turn and Talk
• What is the importance of chlorophyll to a
Separation of pigments
• The different chlorophyll and other
photosynthetic pigments separate out into
patterns called “bands”
• These bands are made up of different colors.
How does it work?
Each of the green dots (A, B, C and D) represent plant
extract each being from a different species of plant.
What do the results tell you?
• Plant species that are genetically similar will
have similar colors and banding patterns.
Test 1: Paper Chromatography
• Directions: Using the procedure and PowerPoint
titled “ Chromatography”, go through the process
of paper chromatography.
• Purpose: To determine which Species (X, Y or Z)
has similar colors and banding patterns as Botana
• Task: Complete steps 1-7 for the next 15 minutes
Indication Test of enzyme M
Botana curus is a plant that produces curol, which is a
compound used to treat certain kinds of cancer.
There exists no good tests to indicate the presence of
curol in plants.
However, if a plant produces the enzyme called “enzyme
M”, this is a good indication that the plant also
produces curol
Presence of enzyme M = presence of curol
What happens if enzyme M is present?
• Just like iodine is an indicator for starch, there
exists an indicator for enzyme M.
• When this indicator comes into contact with a
substance that contains enzyme M, the solution
will “fizz” or bubble up.
• This means that if enzyme M is NOT present then
there will be no reaction
– In other words, nothing will happen
Making connections (3 min)
• How do you predict the plant extract from
Botana curus will react with the enzyme M
indicator? Provide reasoning for your
• Return to the second page of your guided
notes to answer this question.
Test 2: Indication of enzyme M
• Directions: Following the instructions in your
procedure packet, determine which species
(X, Y or Z) contains enzyme M
• Data: Once you have completed the test,
record answers in Table 1 under “Indication of
enzyme M” column
• You will have 12 minutes to complete this
Test 3: Translating DNA
• Directions: Following the instructions in your
procedure packet, determine which Species (X, Y
or Z) contains the most similar amino acid
sequence to Botana curus.
• Data: Record results in Table 1 under “
Translating DNA”
• Time: You will have 10 minutes to complete this
Exit Ticket
Finish Early?
• Which of the molecular tests ran today do you
think is the most accurate at determining
relationships between species?
• Provide reasoning for your response.
Finish early?
• What was the reasoning behind testing each
species for enzyme M?
• How did you know if enzyme M was present?
Finish Early?
• How does knowing the amino acid sequence
help determine the relationship between
• Explain the relationship between a gene and a

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