By: Ine Suh The Cato family was famous for its conservative roots in Roman politics Cato the Elder and Cato the Younger are the most significant members of the family They struggled to maintain order in Rome during various periods of the Roman Republic: rise, prosperity, and fall <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cato_the_Younger> Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 BC) Soldier, senator, statesman, and leader of Roman Conservatives Elected consul and censor Rival of Scipio Africanus Opposed foreign Greek influence; defended traditional Roman morals Cato the Elder <http://mattshistorycourses.files.wordpress.com /2012/03/cato.jpg> Wrote the first history of Rome Origines in Latin Believed Rome had been too lenient on the Carthaginians at the end of the Second Punic War His embassy to Carthage in 153 BC confirmed this rival country’s prosperity as a threat to Rome Cato shows his fellow senators some plump Carthaginian figs to remind them that Carthage had become too prosperous and must be destroyed (Nardo 56). Ended all speeches in the Senate with “Delenda est Carthago” (Carthage must be destroyed) Cato the Elder <http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Bi ography/Images/Profiles/C/Marcus-Porcius-Cato9241762-1-402.jpg> His warnings encouraged Rome to fight again 149 BC: Outbreak of the Third Punic War 146 BC: Romans killed Carthaginians and burned the city Ruin of Carthage gave Rome full access over the Mediterranean Sea – became mare nostrum Cato’s stance toward Carthage turned Rome into a mighty military power that dominated Europe and North Africa for five centuries Marcus Porcius Cato or Cato Uticensis (95-46 BC) Great-grandson of Cato the Elder Leader of optimates – Roman conservative party Treasurer, tribune, and magistrate Cato the Younger <http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lq yyhqWhxt1qcla2no1_r1_500.jpg> Julius Caesar’s foe Fought against Caesar’s power and ruthless ambition 55 BC in Gaul Cato accused Caesar of war crimes Attempted to destroy the triumvirate by making Pompey fight against Julius Caesar Fled to North Africa when Caesar defeated Pompey’s forces Chose to die for his own principles rather than to live under Caesar’s rule 46 BC: Stabbed himself and died in the presence of his family in Utica Cicero’s eulogy Cato – Cato the Younger considered a martyr to Death of Cato of Utica by Charles Brun <http://rlv.zcache.com.au/the_death_of_cato_of_utica_ the ancient Republic 1646_post_cardsrcbcc51602a354f278230317d51c71c14 _vgbaq_8byvr_512.jpg> Rome’s Last Citizen <http://i.huffpost.com/gen/913609/thumbs/r-CATO-ROMES-LAST-CITIZEN-large570.jpg?6> Cato’s stance against tyranny and his famous suicide made him the icon of civic duty and sacrifice Became a hero to those who idealized the dying Roman Republic: Romans were inspired by Cato the Younger and continued to oppose Caesar’s dictatorship 44 BC: Julius Caesar was assassinated in a conspiracy led by the hands of Brutus, Cato the Younger’s son-in-law Carey, Brian Todd, Joshua B. Allfree, and John Cairns. Hannibal's last battle: Zama and the fall of Carthage. Yardley, Pa.: Westholme, Pub., 2008. Print. "Cato, Marcus Porcius." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2013. Web. 26 Mar. 2013.<http://school.eb.com/eb/article9021833>. Eckstein, Arthur M. “Cato, Marcus Porcius, the Younger.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 15 March. 2013. <http://worldbookonline.com/advanced/article> Ferrill, Arther. “Cato, Marcus Porcius, the Elder.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 15 March. 2013. <http://worldbookonline.com/advanced/article> Freeman, Philip. Julius Caesar. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008. Print. Goodman, Rob, and Jimmy Soni. Rome's last citizen: the life and legacy of Cato, mortal enemy of Caesar. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2012. Print. Hughes, Robert. Rome: a cultural, visual, and personal history. New York: Random House Inc., 2011. Print. Nardo, Don. The Roman Republic. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2006. Print.