Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The

Report
SMUGGLING AND TRAFFICKING IN
HUMAN BEINGS:
THE PHENOMENON, THE MARKETS
THAT DRIVE IT AND THE
ORGANISATIONS THAT PROMOTE IT.
Article by Alexis A. Aronowitz – Presentation by Cindy Dehaen,
July 2012
HUMAN SMUGGLING AND TRAFFICKING



Defining
the
phenomenon:
establishing
coherent
understanding
Magnitude of the problem,understanding the reasons for its
existence, identifying the root causes, analysis of the markets
National and international programs & the importance of cooperation: strategies to fight smuggling and trafficking
SMUGGLED OR
TRAFFICKED?
Voluntary vs unvoluntary
Amount of money paid by the
victim upon arrival in the
destination country
Creating a debt bondage:
most victims are women &
children (used for sexual
exploitation & forced labor)
Traffickers escape from prosecution: deception & coercion
The symbiotic relationship between illegal & conventional markets:
use of sub-contracts => both profit of the use of smuggled or trafficked victims
e.g.: textile industry, building industry, restaurants, factories, farms...
MAGNITUDE, REASONS, ROOT CAUSES
=> Accurate statistics: difficult due to its clandistine nature
=> Estimate by the IOM: > 4 million a year
=> 5 factors indicating an increasing & expanding market:
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


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# of people living in poverty willing to take the chance
lack in border control: corrupt government officials
world & economy globalisation
advanced technology & communication
growing organized crime
The PUSH and PULL factors: the REAL CAUSES of LEGAL AND ILLEGAL immigration
PUSH:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Government corruption
Infant mortality rate
Proportion of youngsters
Food production index
Population density
Social unrest
PULL:
•
•
•
•
•
Easy border control (suggesting
government corruption)
Infant mortality rate
Male population over 60
Food production index
Energy consumption
MARKETS BENEFITING FROM IT (ANALYSIS)
While some (il)legal migrants
immediately end up in the
third market, some start
working the domestic service
economy or in restaurants,
often in slave-like conditions
Wanting to escape from being
mistreated, a lot of (il)legal
migrants end up in the illicit
sex industry
Legitimate
economy
Forced labor &
‘doubtfull’
markets
Criminal industry
and illicit sex
industry
Often includes deplorable
working, living and sanitary
conditions
3 LEVELS WITHIN THE ILLICIT SEX INDUSTRY
1.
2.
3.
Small-scale activities by individual entrepreneurs (brothels)
Mid-level prostitution of clandestine operations importing and controlling
women
Large-scale international criminal organisations linked with domestic criminal
organisations , keeping women without documentation under tight control
=> PROFITS USUALLY REINVESTED IN THE LEGITIMATE ECONOMY THROUGH
MONEY LAUNDERING
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES USED FOR
RECRUTEMENT: THE INTERNET
DIFFERENT DEGREES OF ORGANIZATION
Evidence by
Europol:
• high degree of
organization
• evolved from large
entities to smaller
horizontal structures to
co-operate in the
European Union
Management
unit
Organizations
unit
Specilized
sub-units
Recruters
Informers
Before
transport
Corrupt public
officials
..
Transporters
Half of the sex-industry =
in hands
of nonnationals
Investors
During
transport
Increased flexibility &
decentralization allow
a faster adaptation &
re-organization in case of
threats from law enforcement
but also market competition
& higher demand!
Guides
Enforcers
…
Debtcollectors
Upon arrival
...
Horizontal interpendency =>
diversification => expansion
into other illicit markets
& criminal activities:
• vehicle theft
• drug trafficking
• trafficking in arms
• money laundering
CONDITIONS FACILITATING THE PRACTICE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lack of legislation
Lack of political will => corruption
Lack of capacity: manpower & material
Lack of co-operation nationally & internationally
CONDITIONS & MEASURES NECESSARY TO FIGHT IT
1.
2.
Prevention – Protection – Assistance:
=> awareness-raising campaigns in countries of origin & sensitization campaigns
in transit/destination countries
=> assistance programs & effective laws
=> economic measures: strenghtening educational, training & job opportunities
=> training material for fieldworkers
=> a range of services for victims
=> better protection & more legal measures granted to NGO’s
Enforcement – Prosecution of Traffickers:
=> obligatory existance of legislation & enforcement: eradicating corruption
=> enforcing agencies: allow them to take disruptive measures
=> gathering & sharing of intelligence on national & international level
ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN
Establish:
Exchange of information
Co-ordination & harmonization of national policies & laws
Result: national
Bi-lateral or multi-lateral agreements
coalitions &
Repatriation & reintegration assistance
international
Extradition of criminals
co-operation
Training of government officials
More severe penalties for trafficking
=> IF NOT: THE FLOW OF ILLEGAL TRAFFICKING IS SIMPLY DISPLACED
(f.e. influx illegal Chinese into Great-Britain as a result of stringent
measures in Germany)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
By who?
1.
2.
3.
NGO’s
Governments
International bodies
E.g.:
The General Assembly of the United Nations:
1. Convention on Transnational Organized Crime –
signed by 123 coutries
2. Protocol on smuggling – signed by 77 countries
3. Protocol on trafficking – signed by 80 countries
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS
The Global Program by CICP & UNICRI:
=> Several projects in 4 different regions of the world
=> Focus on research: identifying => MODUS OPERANDI
=> travel routes
=> degree of organisation of criminal networks
=> Questionnaires: collecting quantative emperical data & best practices
=> Data from NGO’s, victims, government law enforcement & intelligence sources
=> Information to better develop measures
=> Better understanding of the factors fueling the problem: historical, cultural,
political and economic situations (e.g. the case sof the Philippines & of West-Africa)
RECTIFYING THE ROOT
CAUSES
TO PERMANENTLY RESOLVE THE
PROBLEM
SOURCES


Aronowitz, A.(2001). Smuggling and trafficking in human beings: the
phenomenon, the markets that drive it and the organisations that
promote it. European journal on Criminal Policy and Research,9 (2),
163-195. Doi: 10.1023/A1011253129328
EUHomeAffairs (19 june 2012). Personal testimonies of victims of
human
trafficking
[Video].
Consulted
at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-021GVUiKgU&feature=related

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