PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT SERVICES: AN OVERVIEW

Report
PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT SERVICES:
Active Labour Market Policies
Relevant ILO Conventions
Public Employment Services are the
government institutions which plan and
execute many of the labour market polices
governments use to help workers enter
the labour market, to facilitate labour
market adjustments, and to cushion the
impact of economic transitions.
88: EMPLOYMENT SERVICE
CONVENTION 1948
• Ensure the maintenance of a free public
employment service
• Ensure the best possible organisation of the
employment market
• Consist of a national system of offices
• Tripartite advisory committees
 Registering applicants for employment
 Obtaining precise information on vacancies from
employers
 Facilitating mobility of job seekers
 Collecting, analysing and systematically making
available, information on the labour market
 Administration of unemployment insurance and
other measures
 Meeting the needs of special categories of
applicants
 Initiating special measures for youth
To facilitate the matching of job seekers
who are looking for employment with
enterprises who need workers to fill their
job vacancies
The Evolution of the Core Functions
Job search
assistance &
placement
services
Regulatory
Services
Labour Market
Information
Employment
services
Administer
unemployment benefits
Labour Market
Programmes
INITIAL INTAKE
• Registration
• General Information on Services Provided
• Access to Self-Service Options
• Group Information Sessions
• Individualized Counseling
• Assessment and Development of a Return-To-Work Action Plan
EMPLOYABILITY • May include Career, Vocational and / or Employment Counseling
IMPROVEMENT • May involve one or more Labour Market Progammes
• Do all clients have fair and equitable access to the services?
• Are the desired outcomes being achieved?
PERFORMANCE • Are both job seekers and enterprises satisfied with the services?
MANAGEMENT • Are services delivered efficiently?
Personal /
Environmental
Factors
Clear Job
Objective
Career Counseling
Assisting job seekers select an
appropriate occupation
Skills & Requirements
to perform the job
Vocational Counseling
Assisting job seekers identify skills
gaps and determine the most
appropriate means of closing these
gaps
Job Search
Skills
Ability to
maintain a job
Employment Counseling
Assisting job seekers to
effectively promote themselves
to enterprises with job
vacancies
Realistic Career Goal
Vocational Counseling
Assisting job seekers identify
skills gaps and determine the
most appropriate means of
closing these gaps
Skills training
programmes
Educational
Upgrading
On-the-job training
Entrepreneurial
Training & related
services
Job Subsidies
programmes
Internship
programmes
Employment Counseling
Assisting job seekers to effectively
promote themselves to enterprises
with job vacancies
•Employment
Resource Centre
•Job Matching
•Job Search
Techniques
•Job Finding
Clubs
•Access to
internet sites
and LMI
•Importance of
life long
learning
•Developing
good work
habits
•Life skills
coaching
WHO ARE THE VULNERABLE GROUPS?
Women may face social / cultural taboos, need to balance family and
work responsibilities
Older Workers often lack current job search skills, technical skills
may be outdated but in spite of this may be reluctant to consider retraining
Migrant Workers face recruitment abuses, exploitation, social issues,
difficulty in reintegrating when they return from overseas employment
Youth are three times more likely to be unemployed than adults and
young women have particularly difficulties.
Persons with disabilities face problems of accessibility, societal
misunderstanding regarding their abilities
All of these groups may eventually become Long Term Unemployed
which brings with it even more barriers.
… are likely to be more successful when they are…
 Well targeted and tailored to meet individual needs
 Designed to respond to labour market requirements
 Linked with work experience
 Part of a comprehensive package of services
 Involving the social partners
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
 If not carefully targeted the
 Can create employment if
same result might have
targeted to specific needs
been reached without the
and groups of disadvantaged
programme
people
 Can be used to compensate
for initial lower productivity
and/ or training
 Non subsidized workers may
be replaced by those who
are subsidized
 Employment may last only
as long as the subsidy
 Can have high employment potential
 May meet some job seekers aspirations for flexibility and
independence
But
 Can be difficult for job seekers who lack networks,
experience, technical knowledge and collateral
 There is also the risk of failure of the business, particularly
when the overall economy is weak, which limits its capacity to
create sustainable employment
And…
 More effective when combined with financial and other
services, in particular mentoring and training programmes
 Help job seekers gain labour market attachment
 May increase employability when combined with training
 Improves physical & social infrastructure, particularly if
combined with development and sectoral strategies
HOWEVER…
 Workers may become trapped in a spiral of temporary public
works programmes
 Low capacity for labour market integration
 Often gender biased
 Potential displacement of private sector enterprises
Lack of funds and budget constraints
Capacity of Job Centres and staff
Recruitment and retention of PES staff
Balance & integration of main PES functions
Improving accountability & cost-effectiveness and stakeholder
ownership
Improving use of ICT
Improved LMI capacities
Scope of PES or whether alternative options are
better (e.g. one-stop-shop)
Division of Labour between private & public
employment Services
Coordination of services for international migration
between involved stakeholders nationally &
internationally
• Public Employment Services using different delivery
models
• Special Targeted Initiatives
• Increased demand for Career Counselling
• Leading to need for Better Labour Market Information
• Increased interest in Skills Training
• The Opportunities through Green Jobs


Placement / Job
Brokerage
Labour Market
Information

Placement / Job Brokerage

Placement / Job Brokerage

Labour Market Information
(generally limited to their
sectoral specialty)

Often specialized in issues
related to a specific target
group
Some training programmes
generally specific to the
industry within which the
PrEA specializes

May offer some training,
workshops or seminars on
basic job search
techniques, life skills etc.

May provide some
financial support or other
services to help job
seekers get started

Administration of Labour 
Market Adjustment
Programmes

Administration of
Unemployment
Insurance

Regulatory Activities

The association of private
employment agencies,
CIETT promotes self
regulation of its members.
• LEGITIMACY OF PRIVATE AGENCIES
• BALANCE
• FLEXIBILITY
• PROTECTION OF WORKERS
• COMPLEMENTARITY
1. Modified Traditional (e.g. United Kingdom)
Direct Delivery unemployed up to one year
External providers unemployed more than one year
2. Decentralized (e.g. Philippines, China, Chile)
Large Urban Areas; Outlying Areas
3. Subcontracted (e.g. Australia, Canada)
4. Latest Development (the Netherlands)
When developing an Employment Policy for a country
it is important to consider:
• Capacity of the Public Employment Service
• Core services most needed, the mix and the degree
of each service
• Who are the most vulnerable groups?
• Who are the other stakeholders and partners?
• What delivery model will work to provide the best
possible service to job seekers, enterprises and the
government?

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