Chapter 5

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Murder
SOMNUS, -I, m.
EI
SOMNIUM, -I, n.
ANIMUM RECUPERARE
NIHIL MALI
MALUS, -A, -UM
OBDORMIO, -IRE, -IVI, -ITURUS
CORPUS, COPORIS, n.
STERCUS, STERCORIS, n.
SUPRA
MANE
PUNIO, -IRE, -IVI, ITUS
SURGO, SURGERE,
SURREXI, SURRECTURUS
SUM, ESSE, FUI, FUTURUS
ADIUVO, ADIUVARE,
ADIUVI, ADIUTUS
PONO, PONERE, POSUI, POSITUS
CONICIO, CONICERE,
CONIECI, CONIECTUS
PRIMUS, -A, -UM
LUX, LUCIS, f.
PRIMA LUCE-at dawn
MORTUUS, -A, -UM
SIMULO, -ARE, -AVI, -ATUS
FINIO, -IRE, -IVI, -ITUS
SERO
COGITO, -ARE, -AVI, -ATUS
VIDETUR
INVITUS, -A, -UM
EO, IRE, II or IVI, ITURUS
PETO, PETERE, PETIVI,
PETITUS
INVENIO, INVENIRE, INVENI,
INVENTUS
REMOVEO, REMOVERE,
REMOVI, REMOTUS
EXTRAHO, EXTRAHERE,
EXTRAXI, EXTRACTUS
VIDEO, VIDERE, VISI, VISUS
IUBEO, IUBERE, IUSSI,
IUSSUS
VOLO, VELLE, VOLUI
DICO, DICERE, DIXI, DICTUS
POSSUM, POSSE, POTUI
Derivatives
Latin word(s)
If you are…
PETERE
1. distributing a petition, you are…signatures.
2. a somnambulist, you are a
3. receiving a corporal punishment, you are receiving
punishment to your…
4. immortal, you will not
5. cogitating, you are
6. a person of infinite wisdom, your wisdom has no
7. making a deposit, you are…something down
8. corpulent, you have a large
9. considering punitive measures, you are looking for
ways to
10. a general’s adjutant, you are the general’s
11. in a mortuary, you are surrounded by
12. simulating, you are
SEEKING
Pre-Reading…
Miles hanc fabulam narravit:
“Duo amici, Aulus et Septimus, dum iter in
Graecia faciunt, ad urbem Megaram venerunt. Aulus
in caupona pernoctavit, in villa hospitis Septimus.
Media nocte, dum Septimus dormit, Aulus in somno
ei apparuit et clamavit. ‘Age, Septime! Fer auxilium!
Caupo me necare parat.’
postquam animum recuperavit, ‘Nihil mali,’ inquit.
‘Somnium modo fuit.’
Lines 1-12
FABULA
“Septimus, somnio perterritus, statim surrexit et,
“Deinde iterum obdormivit. Iterum tamen in
somno Aulus suo amico apparuit; iterum Septimo
clamavit, ‘Ubi ego auxilium petivi, tu non venisti.
Nemo me adiuvare nunc potest. Caupo enim me
necavit. Postquam hoc fecit, corpus meum in
plaustro posuit et stercus supra coniecit. In
Necesse est igitur cras mane plaustrum petere et
cauponem punire.’
Lines 1-12
FABULA
animo habet plaustrum ex urbe cras movere.
Reading Comprehension
1. Ubi est Megara?
 2. Ubi pernoctavit Aulus? Ubi erat amicus Auli?
 3. Quando Aulus Septimo apparuit?
Quando…? When…?
 4. Quid fecit Septimus postquam animum
recuperavit?
 5. Ubi caupo corpus Auli posuit? Quid in animo
habuit?

“Iterum surrexit Septimus. Prima luce ad
cauponam iit et plaustrum petivit. Ubi plaustrum
invenit, stercus removit et corpus extraxit. Septimus,
ubi amicum mortuum vidit, lacrimavit. Caupo
scelestus quoque lacrimavit, nam innocentiam
simulabat. Septimus tamen cauponem statim
accusavit. Mox cives eum puniverunt.”
Postquam miles fabulam finivit, silentium fuit.
vos iussi post cenam cubitum ire? Cur ad cubiculum
non istis?”
FABULA
Subito Cornelius exclamavit, “Agite, pueri! Nonne
Lines 13-27
Sed Sextus, “Nos quoque fabulam militis
audire voluimus. Non defessi sumus. Non sero
est.
Hoc tamen dixit Sextus quod cubitum ire
timebat. Dum enim fabulam militis audiebat,
cauponem spectabat. Cogitabat, “Quam
media nocte me necare. Necesse est vigilare.”
FABULA
scelestus ille caupo videtur! Certe in animo habet
Lines 13-27
Etiam Marcus timebat. Cogitabat tamen, “Si
hic caupo est scelestus, gaudeo quod miles in
caupona pernoctat. Eucleides certe nos adiuvare
non potest.”
Inviti tandem pueri cubitum ierunt, vigilare
parati. Mox tamen semisomni fuerunt. Brevi
FABULA
tempore obdormivit Marcus.
Lines 13-27
Reading Comprehension 2
6. Quid Septimus prima luce fecit?
 7. Quando lacrimavit Septimus?
 8. Cur lacrimavit caupo?
 9. Quid cives fecerunt?
 10. Quid Sextus facere timebat?
 11. Cur Marcus gaudet?
 12. Quomodo pueri cubitum ierunt?
 13. Quid Marcus et Sextus facere in animo
habuerunt?

Translation Review
Lines 1-5
Who is telling the story? (line 1)
Where are the two friends traveling? (line 2)
To what city have they arrived? (line 3)
Where does Aulus spend the night? (line 3)
Where does Septimus spend the night? (line 3)
Fill in line 4: “In the __________________of the night, while Septimus
______________, Aulus ________________ to him in a ___________ and
shouted:
What does Aulus ask for?
Why does he need this?

Lines 6-12
How does the dream make Septimus feel? (line 6)
Why does he go back to sleep? Line 7)
What happens again when he is sleeping?
Fill in Aulus’s statements (lines 9-10): “When ____ asked for ____________,
you ____ _____ _______. No one is able to ____________ me now. The
innkeeper has ___________ me.”

13. Draw a picture of to go with this caption:

Postquam hoc fecit, corpus meum in plaustro posuit et sercus supra coniecit.
14. Postquam hoc fecit, corpus meum in plaustro posuit et sercus supra coniecit.
15. Where does the innkeeper plan to move the cart? Line 11 When does Septimus have
to act? Line 12
16. What 2 things does Septimus have to do?
Line 12
17. What does Septimus look for? Line 13
18. What does he do when he finds the #17 answer? (line 14)
19. What makes Septimus cry?
20. Who else cries?
21. Why does this person cry?
22. Does Septimus believe this person (ans. to 20)?
23. What happens to the person (ans. to 20)?
24. After the story is finished what does Cornelius tell the boys? (lines 17-18)
25. What arguments does Sextus use against that? (3) Lines 19-20
26. Draw the scene: Mox tamen semisomni fuerant. Breve tempore obdormuit Marcus.
27. How does Sextus really feel? Line 21 What does Sextus think the soldier might do?
Lines 21-23
28. Why does Marcus also timebat?
29. Would Eucleides be able to help?
30. The boys are described as unwilling and prepared? What are they unwilling about?
What are they prepared to do?

Verb Meanings
_____ 1.
_____ 2.
_____ 3.
_____ 4.
_____ 5.
_____ 6.
_____ 7.
_____ 8.
_____ 9.
_____ 10.
_____ 11.
_____ 12.
_____ 13.
_____ 14.
_____ 15.
iaciunt
removet
misimus
removebant
iecisti
removit
mittitis
removeo
iaciebamus
mittebas
iecerunt
mittimus
removi
mittebamus
iaciebas
a. they have thrown
b. we kept throwing
c. we are sending
d. they are throwing
e. I did remove
f. he does remove
g. we were sending
h. you do send
i. they were removing
j. you were throwing
k. we have sent
l. you kept sending
m. you threw
n. I remove
o. she removed
Tense ID
1. Marcus sub arbore sedebat sed subito surrexit.
2. Iam advesperascebat et viatores aedificia urbis
conspexerunt.
3. Davus in horto saepe laborabat.
4. Servi cenam paraverunt et nunc cenare possumus.
5. Aurelia in caupona pernoctare noluit.
6. “Ego,” Cornelius inquit, “in caupona numquam
pernoctavi.”
7. Cornelia manum ad canem identidem extendebat.
8. Sextus a cane fugit.
9. Quamquam Marcus dormiebat, Sextus obdormire non
potuit.
Recycling Bin
1. Subject of narravit (1)
9. Verb-Perfect Tense, 2nd Singular (9)
2. Accusative singular noun (2)
10. Direct Object of posuit (line 10)
3. Verb-Perfect Tense (3)
11. Accusative singular noun (11)
4. Genitive Singular Noun (3)
12. Direct object of punier (12)
5. Ablative Singular Noun (4)
13. Ablative singular noun (13)
6. Infinitive (5)
14. Verb-Imperfect Tense (line 15)
7. Ablative singular noun (6)
15. Genitive singular noun (19)
8. Verb-Perfect tense (8)
ID these verbs:
PRES, IMP, PERF, INF
Narravit
Faciunt
Venire
Dormiebant
Apparuit
Clamabat
Parat
Necare
Posuit
petere
Apparebat
Habet
Necavit
Extraxit
Accusare
Ibant
Dixit
Timebat
Videt
adiuvare
Fill in the Blanks
1. “______________________ ______________________,” inquit caupo.
“Intrate, viatores!” (There is nothing wrong)
2. Aurelia ______________________ cauponam intravit. (unwilling)
3. Postquam cenam ______________________, miles fabulam narravit.
(we finished)
4. “Meum ______________________ valde timeo,”
______________________ Septimus. (dream) (thought)
5. Aulus ______________________ ______________________ non
poterat. (to regain his sense)
6. Caupo ______________________ ______________________ corpus
iecit. (dung) (on top of)
7. Septimus ad cauponam ______________________
______________________ iter fecit. (at dawn)
8. Caupo ______________________ scelestus
______________________. (to him) (seems)
9. Septimus Aulum ______________________ sub stercore invenit.
(dead)
10. Pueri, ______________________ fabulam audiverunt, valde
timebant. (after)
11. Sextus, quamquam ad cubiculum iit, non
______________________. (did…fall asleep)
12. Pueros, quod ______________________ cubitum ierunt, pater
______________________. (late) (punished)
13. Canes latrantes Marcum e ______________________ mane
excitaverunt. (sleep)
14. Ubi corpus ______________________ vidit, caupo
______________________ simulavit. (of Aulus) (innocence)
Form that verb!
1. Cur vos nondum ________________________, pueri? (surgere)
2. Valde doleo, domine, quod ego fossam non
________________________. (videre)
3. Caupo servos ad raedam statim ________________________.
(mittere)
4. Quo vos equos ________________________, servi? (ducere)
5. Servi cauponis raedam e fossa non
________________________. (extrahere)
6. Quid tu ________________________, Aurelia? (dicere)
7. Ego, mea domina, alium lectum tibi
________________________. (invenire)
8. Nos laeti amicos ________________________. (adiuvare)
9. Quando tu cubitum ________________________? (ire)
10. Illa nocte nos omnes defessi ________________________.
(esse)
11. Ego te ________________________ fabulam narrare. (iubere)
12. Caupo corpus Auli in plaustrum ________________________.
(iacere)
13. Septimus e plaustro corpus amici ________________________.
(removere)
14. Cives statim cauponem scelestum
________________________. (petere)
15. “Cur tu me ________________________, domine?” rogavit
caupo. (accusare)
Sextus Can’t Sleep
Sextus tamen non obdormivit, nam de militis fabula cogitabat. Itaque
diu vigilabat et de Aulo mortuo cogitabat. Tandem, “Marce!” inquit. “Tune
timebas ubi illam fabulam audivisti?”
Sed Marcus nihil respondit. Iterum, “Marce!” inquit. “Tune cauponem
replied
spectabas?” Iterum silentium! Deinde Sextus, iam timidus, “Marce!
Marce!” inquit. “Cur tu obdormivisti? Cur tu non vigilavisti?”
Subito sonitum in cubiculo audivit. “O Eucleides!” inquit. “Cur ad
sound
cubiculum nondum venisti? O pater! Cur me in Italia reliquisti? Voluistine
Left behind
ita me ad mortem mittere? In Asiam ad te ire volo. Ibi enim nullum est
thus
To my death
periculum, sed periculosum est hic in Italia habitare.”
Multa se rogabat Sextus, nam, quamquam puer temerarius esse
solebat, nunc media nocte in cubiculo tremebat.
Was trembling
Itaque Sextus, per totam noctem vigilare paratus, diu ibi
whole
sedebat. “Quomodo iam e manibus cauponis scelesti effugere
Was sitting
To run away
possum? Suntne omnes caupones scelesti? Fortasse caupo me,
filium civis praeclari, necare in animo habet. Quamquam Aulus
aurum habuit, ego nihil habeo, neque aurum neque pecuniam.”
gold
money
Ita cogitabat Sextus. Iterum sonitum audivit. Timebat sed
tandem surrexit invitus, nam omnes cubiculi partes inspicere
To examine
volebat. Mox tamen risit. Ecce! Sub lecto erat feles, obesa et
laughed
cat
semisomna. Prope felem Sextus murem mortuum vidit. Mussavit
mouse
Sextus, “Non necesse est hoc corpus sub stercore celare!”
ID Verbs: Sextus Can’t Sleep
1
15
29
43
2
16
30
44
3
17
31
45
4
18
32
46
5
19
33
47
6
20
34
48
7
21
35
49
8
22
36
50
9
23
37
51
10
24
38
52
11
25
39
53
12
26
40
54
13
27
41
55
14
28
42
Translate into Latin:
1. Once Aulus was making a journey in Greece.
2. He could not find his friend’s country house, and so he spent the
night in an inn.
3. When the innkeeper saw the tired traveler, he ordered slaves to
help him.
4. But that night he killed (his) poor guest.
5. In the morning he hid the body under the dung in a wagon.
6. When the citizens removed the dung and saw Aulus dead, they
loudly accused the innkeeper and punished him.
Culture: EAVESDROPPING
Falernian wine
Silver Denarius
Agricola, governor
Of Britain
Early the Next Morning
Nondum lucebat, sed Cornelia, ut solebat, iam
surgebat. Tunicam induit et tacite e cubiculo exiit, quod
matrem excitare nolebat. E cubiculis cauponae nihil nisi
silentium. Omnes adhuc dormiebant, sed Cornelia audire
poterat vocem ancillae quae iam in culina laborabat.
kitchen
Cornelia igitur ad culinam appropinquavit et feminam
conspexit. Dum Cornelia spectat, femina cibum coquit et
Caught sight of
cantat. Cornelia intrat.
sings
CORNELIA: Nonne tu es femina quae saltat? Quid tibi nomen est?
dances
ANCILLA: Ita vero! Saltatrix sum. Me appellant Elissam. Quis es tu?
dancer
They call
CORNELIA: Ego sum Cornelia. Quis te saltare docuit?
taught
ANCILLA: (cum risu) Ubi in urbe Gadibus habitabam cum
Gades, Cadiz-town in Spain
parentibus, mater me cum crotalis saltare, cantare, multa alia
castanet
facere docuit.
CORNELIA: Si tu saltatrix es, cur cibum coquis?
ANCILLA: Quamquam sum saltatrix, ancilla tamen sum.
CORNELIA: Tu ancilla es? Quomodo ad Italiam venisti?
ANCILLA: Piratae me me in Hispania ceperunt et ad Italiam tulerunt.
pirates
captured
brought
Apollodorus me in urbe Roma emit.
bought
CORNELIA: Si tu saltatrix es, cur cibum coquis?
ANCILLA: Quomodo effugere possum? Nullos amicos in Italia
habeo et ad Hispaniam sola redire non possum. Praeterea
Apollodorus dominus bonus est quod ipse servus fuit. Me
numquam verberat et omnia dat quae volo.
gives
CORNELIA: Praeter libertatem.
except
freedom
ANCILLA: Ita vero! Praeter libertatem.
MythBuster: Phaethon
Epaphus (son of Zeus and Io, grandson of
Inachus-river god) was a friend of Phaethon
 Phaethon bragged that his father was HELIUS
 Epaphus, tired of the bragging, told him to prove it

Phaethon Runs to Mommy
Goes to Clymene and asked for a
sign about who is father is
 Clymene cries out “My son, I
swear to you by the radiance of
Helius, which you now look upon,
that from him you have been
sprung. It is not hard to find your
father’s home; the place where he
rises borders our own land. If you
are so worried, go and get
answers from him yourself.”
 Phaethon jumped up and crossed
over the continents until he came
to the place where his father rose
each morning

Helius’ Palace

Phaethon was overwhelmed
by the palace of Helius
 Lofty columns
 Gold, bronze, silver, and ivory

Came face to face with his
father
 Had to stand back because of
the luminous rays of the sun
 Helius sat on a throne, cloaked
in purple with emeralds
 Attendants surrounded him
○ Day, Month, Year, Century,
Hours, Spring (with a flowering
crown), Summer (garland of ripe
grain), Autumn (grape stained),
and Winter (old white locks)
Helius offers to grant Phaethon a wish

Helius asked why he was there
 Wants proof that he is his father
Helius embraced his son and said he is his father
 So Phaethon doesn’t doubt Helius, he promises to
grant a gift of his wish to Phaethon

 Phaethon wanted to drive Helius’ chariot with winged
horses for one day
○ Only thing Helius can’t give him-gods can’t even control
his chariot
Helius gravely warns Phaethon of
danger

“When my horses first set out at dawn, they can
hardly mount up, straining upwards along the steep
arduous way, the summits of the highest heavens
tower up to incredible heights. If I momentarily
happen to glance down at the sea or lands from those
dizzying heights, even I can’t help quaking and my
heart races with anxiety. The way down is much
worse with its swift and precipitous decline, requiring
the surest and steadiest of drivers. Moreover, the
rapid, whirling motion of the spinning universe brings
on sudden dizziness, overcoming anyone except me
alone, as I plow through the heavens in a direction
opposite to the spinning of the earth
The perils of the constellations

“Imagine that you have been given that chariot. What
would you do with it? Would you be able to hold fast
in it against the spinning poles so that their revolving
axes would not carry you away? No! And you would
face these other dangers among the heavenly
constellations: the Horned Bull (Taurus), the
Haemonian Archer (Sagittarius), the Savage Lion
(Leo), the Crab (Cancer), and the Scorpion (Scorpio)
curving his wild arms in a long wild arc while the Crab
swings out with his arm in the other direction. And
what about my spirited horses? They breathe out fire
from nose and mouth. I can scarcely manage them
myself.”

“Ah, child, beware in case I have granted you a
deadly gift! Change your wish while there is still
time! You have arrived here asking for a sign that
I’m your father. Here’s a sure sign: I give you all
the proof you need by the way in which I fear for
your life. I have a father’s unselfish concern for
your welfare. Come on, look all around, see all
that is in this rich world and choose some other
good thing. I will deny you nothing! I beg you not
to ask of me this one request, which is not an
honor and privilege, but instead, a dreadful
punishment!”
Phaethon chooses to drive the
chariot


Phaethon insisted
Helius led Phaethon to the chariot
 Made by Hephaestus
 Golden wheels, silver spokes
 Encrusted with chrysolites and other gems
Aurora, goddess of dawn, began to open
her purple gates; Lucifer, the morning star,
went off
 Helius ordered the goddess Hours to yoke
the horses; he put an ointment on the on
Phaethon’s face to protect him from the
sun’s rays

Fatherly Advice

“If, at least, you can obey your
father’s warning, spare the lash and
use the reins more strongly. The
horses will go forward of their own
will; the harder task will be to hold
them back. Follow the course of my
tracks in the skies—you’ll see them.
Don’t wander too high off course or
the heavens will burn; don’t go too
low or the earth will be scorched.
Stay between the writhing Serpent
on the right and the Altar of Heaven
on the left. Hold tight to the wheel! I
leave the rest to Good Fortune who
will help you and guide you better
than you can yourself.”
Phaethon sets out but quickly
loses control
Phaethon got into the chariot and thanked his father
 Horses exploded forward, because of the lightness of
Phaethon the horses ran wild
 Phaethon didn’t know the course or how to handle the
reins

 Looked down and became fearful; what should he do?
Overcome by fear of the constellations, he
dropped the reins; the horses broke loose
 Horses reared up towards the stars and then
plummeted toward Earth

 Set clouds and land on fire
 Cities perished
 Phaethon was at the mercy of the horses as he
watched earth burning
Phaethon’s blazing chariot
scorches the earth
Heat dried up Northern Africa,
creating a desert
 Nile River fled to the outer limit of
the earth and hid its head, which
still lies hidden, seven mouths lay
dry, filled with silt
 Rivers of the West, the Rhone, Po
and Tiber dried up
 Mountains sprang from the sea

 Poseidon tried three times to lift
himself from the sea, he failed
because he could not stand the heat

Mother Earth cried out to Zeus for
mercy
Zeus hurls a thunderbolt to stop
the chariot
Zeus called upon the other gods,
especially Helius to act as witnesses
 Zeus flung a three-fold thunderbolt at
the chariot and Phaethon, extinguishing
fires with fire

The death of Phaethon
Flames turned Phaethon’s hair red as he was
flung from the chariot
 Phaethon fell like a start through the sky
 Naiads of the western land provided a tomb for his
smoking remains
 His tombstone read:

SON of mighty Father SUN
Here lies young, noble
PHAETHON,
Chariot Driver, Devastator.
He held not the well-worn course,
But rashly dared with cart and horse.
Myth explains the
aetiology (cause) of
the sun’s rising, just as
the myth of Demeter
and Persephone
explains the natural
phenomenon of the
season of the year

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