Human Resource Management in Japan

Report
Human Resource Management
in Japanese Government
2013.3.1
GRIPS
Professor
Kiyotaka YOKOMICHI
1
Contents
1.Government Structure in Japan
2.Government Employees in Japan
3.Laws concerned with Public Service
4.Organization concerned with Public Service
5.Basic Characteristics of Public Service
6.Recruitment
7.Promotion
8.Remuneration
9.Human Resource Development
10.Recent Problems in Public Service
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1.Government Structure in Japan
・National Government
・Local Government
・Prefecture(47)
・Municipality(1,719)
・City(789)
・Town(746)
・Village(184)
*Each Government has Authority to recruit its own
Employees
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2.Government Employees in Japan
(1)
(1)Number of Government Employees(2011)
・Total:3,430,000
・National Government Employees:641,000
・Local Government Employees:2,789,000
・Prefecture:1,516,000
・Municipality:1,273,000
*Number of Local Government Employees is
that of “Regular Public Service”(excluded
Governors,Mayors and Members of Councils etc.)
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2.Government Employees in Japan
(2)
(2)Details of National Government Employees
(a)Regular Public Service:341,000
・Civil Service:274,000
(Under NPA Pay Scheme)
・Others:64,000
(b)Special Public Service:300,000
・Minsters, Ambassadors, Members of the Diet,
Judges etc:30,000
・Defense Personnel:270,000
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2.Government Employees in Japan
(3)
(3)Details of Local Government Employees
・Prefecture:1,516,000
General Service:237,000,Education:901,000
Police:282,000 ,Others:96,000
・Municipality:1,273,000
General Service:689,000,Educatuion:154,000
Fire Fighter:139,000,Public Enterprise:291,000
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3.Laws concerned with Public Service
(1)The Constitution of Japan(1946)
Article 15 (2)All public officials are servants to the whole
community and not of any group thereof.
(2)National Public Service Law(1947)
→National Government Employee
(Regular Public Service)
Basic Rules of Appointment, Remuneration, Status and
Duties of Regular Public Service etc.
cf. Local Public Service Law(1950)
→Local Government Employee
(Regular Public Service)
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4.Organization concerned with
Public Service
・The National Personnel Authority(NPA)
・Established on National Public Service Law Article 3
・Main Roles
・Recruitment Examination
・Making Appointment and Dismissal Standard
・Recommendations for Remuneration and other
Working conditions
・Training and Research
cf. Personnel Committee(Local Public Service Law
Article 7)
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5.Basic Characteristics of
Public Service
(1)Recruitment→Competitive Examination
(2)Life-Time Employment→Retirement Age 60
(3)Promotion→Performance and Seniority
(4)Secured Status→Securing Neutrality and
Stability
(5)Restriction of Basic Labor Rights→Collective
Agreement and Strike are prohibited
(6)Personnel Management →Done by Each Ministry
(7)Main Stream→Public Service as Generalist
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6.Recruitment(1)
(1)Principle→Examination-based Recruitment
Exception:Doctor, Pilot, etc.
(2)New Examinations from 2012
(a)Exam for Comprehensive Service
→Graduate and/or University Students
(b)Exam for General Service
→University and/or High School Students
(c)Exam for Specialist(Tax Specialist etc.)
(d)Exam for Experienced Personnel(From Private
Sector)
cf. ExamⅠ(High),Ⅱ(Middle),Ⅲ(Primary)(~2011)
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6.Recruitment(2)
(3)Process of Recruitment (ExamⅠ “Career”,2011)
(a)Apply (April)
27,567(Female 8,567)
(b)First Exam (May)
Paper Test
(c)Second Exam (June)
2,864 (Female 549)
Paper Test and Interview
(d)Pass Exam(June)
1,390 (Female274)
(e)Job Hunting in Each Ministry(June-July)
(f)Job Offer (June)
554 (Female140)
(g)Recruited in April next year
*Exam done by NPA, but Each Ministry has Power to employ
among the Candidates who passed the Exam.
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7.Promotion(1)
(1)Hierarchy in Ministry
(a)Political Appointee Position
Minister, Vice Minister, Parliamentary Secretary
(b)Career Service Position
Administrative Vice Minister(Designated Service)
Director-General(DS)
Deputy-Director General(DS)
Division Director(Grade 9,10)
Head of Office(G7,8),Deputy Director(G5,6),
Unit Chief(G3,4), Officer(G1,2)
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7.Promotion(2)
(2)Promotion in Ministry
(Case of “Career”)
Administrative Vice-Minister
Director-General
Deputy Director-General
Division Director
Head of Office
Deputy Director
Unit Chief
58
55
50
45
40
30
25
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7.Promotion(3)
(3)Promotion in Ministry of Internal Affairs and
Communications(MIC)
(Case of “Career” in Local Governance Field)
Unit Chief (MIC)→Division Director(LG)
→Deputy Director(MIC)
→Director-General(LG)
→Division Director(MIC)
→Vice Governor(LG)
→Deputy Director-General(MIC)→・・・
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8.Remuneration(1)
(1)Basic Principle of Remuneration
(a)Meeting Changing Conditions
(b)Based on Duties and Responsibilities
(2)Determination Process to meet Changing Conditions
(a)NPA compares Remuneration of National Public
Service with that of Private Sector every year
(b)NPA does Recommendation for filling the gap between
them to Cabinet and Diet
(c)Cabinet presents “Revised Remuneration Bill”
(d)Diet decides “Revised Remuneration Law”
*Remuneration is not decided by Negotiation with Union
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8.Remuneration(2)
(3)Salary based on Duties and responsibilities
(a)Determining Grade and Step for New Recruit
ex. Comprehensive Service(MA)→G2,S11
(b)Step can be increased once a Year base on
Personal Evaluation(8(5%),6(20%),4,2,0)
(c)Grade will go up according to Promotion
(4)Several Additional Allowances
Family Allowance , Housing Allowance etc.
*Remuneration is cut by 7.8%(2012-2013) for
Reconstruction from East Japan Earthquake 2011
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9.Human Resource Development
(1)On the Job Training(Learning with Working)
Done by Each Ministry, Job Rotation(2-3 Years)
Big Room with No Partition, Group Work in Section,
Instruction by Superior and Supervisor (Their Duty)
(2)Off the Job Training
(a)Training Provided by NPA
New Recruit,3 year Young Officer,
Deputy Director, Director etc.
NPA has “National Institute of Public Administration”
(b) Fellow Ship Program
Study at Graduate School in Domestic and Foreign Countries
etc.
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10.Recent Problems in Public Service
(1)Recent Reform under Discussion
(a)Cabinet Secretariat should have Power to manage Senior
Officials of Ministries to establish Integrated Personnel
Management
(b)Union should have Right of Collective Agreement and
Remuneration Recommendation by NPA should be
abolished
(2) Establishment of Desirable Burden-Sharing between Politician and
Bureaucrat under Government Change Circumstances
(a)Role of Politician( Vision/Direction, Decision-Making)
(b)Role of Bureaucrat(Planning, Implementation)
*Needs of Capacity Building not only Bureaucrat but also Politician
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