FINAL REVIEW: HUMAN BODY 1. The diagram below shows a human body system. 6. The table below shows the symptoms of some diseases that are caused by bacteria. What are 2 of its functions? (1) protects & supports the body (2) produces & transports oxygen (3) produces &excretes waste (4) controls & coordinates body 2. The main function of the digestive system is to (1) breakdown foods for absorption into the blood. (2) Exchange oxygen & carbon dioxide in the lungs. (3) Release energy from sugars within the cells. Which two diseases in the table affect the digestive system? (4) Carry nutrients to all parts of the body. (1) botulism and typhoid fever (2) tetanus and pneumonia 3. Which sequence lists the levels of organization (3) botulism and pneumonia (4) tetanus and typhoid fever in the human body from simplest to most complex? (1) organ system → tissue → cell → organ 7. The diagram shows a part of a human body system. (2) tissue → cell → organ → organ system The movement shown by the arrows is coordinated by the (3) organ → organ system → tissue → cell (4) cell → tissue → organ → organ system (1) circulatory system (2) excretory system (3) nervous system (4) reproductive system 4. Which three systems of the human body function together to move and control body parts? (1) nervous, skeletal, and muscular 8. Which two body systems most directly cause the arm above to bend? (2) muscular, endocrine, and excretory (1) skeletal and muscular (3) digestive, excretory, and reproductive (2) reproductive and endocrine (4) circulatory, endocrine, and respiratory (3) respiratory and excretory (4) nervous and digestive 5. The labeled organs in the diagram below are part of which human body system? 9. The endocrine system produces chemicals that affect organ functions. These chemicals are called (1) respiratory (1) nutrients (3) microbes (2) digestive (2) hormones (4) wastes (3) endocrine (4) circulatory 10. Which substance provides humans with their main source of energy? (1) food (3) water (2) carbon dioxide (4) chlorophyll 20. During breathing, the lungs absorb oxygen, which is used by cells to carry out the process of (1) respiration (3) photosynthesis (2) secretion (4) excretion 11. When a human exercises, sweat forms on the skin. Sweating is an example of the human body’s ability to (1) recycle nutrients (3) obtain water for nourishment (2) respond to the environment (4) make more energy 21. Running is an activity that causes the cells in the muscular system to use oxygen at a faster rate. Which system responds by delivering more oxygen to these cells? (1) digestive (3) circulatory (2) nervous (4) endocrine 12. Nutrients from digested food enter the blood stream through the process of (1) absorption (3) respiration (2) elimination (4) secretion 13. In which process is oxygen used to release energy stored in food? (1) photosynthesis (3) digestion (2) respiration (4) reproduction 14. The kidneys, which remove dissolved wastes from the blood, are organs of the (1) endocrine system (3) skeletal system (2) excretory system (4) nervous system 22. In which human body system are hormones produced? (1) respiratory (3) nervous (2) endocrine (4) digestive 23. Which human body systems are directly involved in reflex actions, such as knee jerk, blinking, and jumping when startled? (1) circulatory and respiratory (2) digestive and excretory (3) nervous and muscular (4) reproductive and skeletal 15. Which two systems of a rabbit’s body must be working together for the rabbit to run away from a fox? (1) digestive & endocrine (3) muscular & skeletal (2) reproductive & nervous (4) excretory & respiratory 16. Fats are important nutrients because they (1) provide genetic information (2) contain stored energy (3) are used in photosynthesis (4) maintain bone density 17. Which choice is the result of abnormal cell division? (1) cancer (3) infection (2) pregnancy (4) extinction 18. To provide energy for work, all cells need (1) chloroplasts (2) nutrients (3) atmospheric nitrogen (4) carbon dioxide 19. Cells are to tissues as tissues are to (1) microbes (3) systems (2) organs (4) bacteria 24. When do organs begin to develop in humans? (1) in the sperm cell before fertilization (2) before fertilization and after birth (3) in the egg cell after fertilization (4) after fertilization and before birth 25. Which body system is responsible for the elimination of liquid and gaseous wastes? (1) nervous (3) excretory (2) skeletal (4) digestive 26. Which factor has the least effect on a person’s metabolism? (1) exercise (3) intelligence (2) hormones (4) diet 27. Tissue is composed of a group of (1) similar cells working together (2) different organs working together (3) organ systems working together (4) nuclei in a cell working together 28. Which term describes an organism’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment? (1) reproduction (3) locomotion (2) extinction (4) regulation *Base your answers to questions 29-32 on the diagram below showing human reproduction. SPERM CELL 29. Identify the sex cell shown at A. ___________________________ 30. Identify the sex cell shown at B.___________________________ EGG CELL 31. Identify the reproductive process that is occurring at C.______________________________ FERTILIZATION 32. Identify the process that is occurring between E and F._______________________________ MITOSIS *Base your answers to questions 33-34 on the diagrams, which shows systems in humans and plants. 33. Select one structure labeled in the human system & explain how it contributes to the way the human system functions. ____________________________________ HEART-BLOOD CIRCULATION 34. Select one structure labeled in the plant system & explain how it contributes to the way the plant system functions. ____________________________________ LEAVES-PHOTOSYNTHESIS *Base your answers to questions 35-37 on the diagram below, which shows a model of sexual reproduction. The lines in each cell represent genetic material (chromosomes). B 35. Which letter in the diagram represents a female sex cell? _____ FERTILIZATION 36. Which process is occurring at C? ________________________________ CHROMOSOME TRANSFER 37. What evidence in the diagram shows that sexual reproduction occurred?_____________________________ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38. The diagram below represents a magnified view of an air sac in the human lung. The white arrows indicate blood flow. 39. What is the main function of the circulatory system? (1) secrete enzymes (3) produce hormones (2) digest proteins (4) transport materials 40. Infectious diseases are caused by (1) allergies (3) chemical spills (2) vitamin deficiencies (4) microorganisms Which two systems are interacting in this diagram? (1) skeletal and muscular (2) nervous and endocrine (3) reproductive and digestive (4) respiratory and circulatory 41. If a species is no longer able to reproduce, it will (1) adapt to its environment (2) become immune to disease (3) become extinct (4) increase its population 42. Three different human cells are shown below. Which process occurs in all of these cells? (1) metamorphosis (3) reproduction (2) locomotion (4) photosynthesis 43. Which unit is used to indicate the amount of energy in food? (1) ounce (2) degree (3) calorie (4) gram 44. The main function of hormones in the human body is to (1) destroy microbes (3) transport blood (2) regulate body functions (4) store energy 45. The diagram below shows several organs in the human digestive system. Explain two ways that food is changed as it passes through the digestive system. MECHANICAL & (1)_______________________ CHEMICAL DIGESTION BREAKDOWN OF FOOD (2)_______________________ MOLECULES 46. What is the result of cellular respiration? (1) Energy for cell processes is released. (2) Oxygen is released for photosynthesis. (3) Cells undergo decomposition. (4) Nutrients are excreted to prevent the buildup of body fat. *Base your answers to questions 47-48 on the diagram below, which shows four stages in the development of a human after fertilization. 47. Which process must occur between A & D? (1) mutation (3) cell division (2) sexual reproduction (4) extinction 48. Which sequence of development is correct? (1) fertilized egg → tissues → organ systems → organs (2) fertilized egg → organ systems → organs → tissues (3) fertilized egg → organs → tissues → organ systems (4) fertilized egg → tissues → organs → organ systems 49. Humans have several organ systems that allow them to carry on all life activities. Complete the chart below by identifying one organ system that is responsible for each life activity listed. The first row has been completed as an example. RESPIRATORY EXCRETORY CIRCULATORY REPRODUCTIVE 54. What is the major function of the human excretory system? (1) eliminate waste materials (2) respond to stimuli (3) break down food mechanically (4) absorb nutrients from food 55. The interaction of the skeletal & muscular systems to produce locomotion is coordinated by which body system? (1) circulatory (3) nervous (2) excretory (4) respiratory 56. Infections may be caused by (1) mutations (3) toxic substances (2) microorganisms (4) climate changes 57. The chart below identiﬁes the function of several organs found in a human body system. MUSCULAR 50. Running to escape danger is an action that requires the nervous system to coordinate the interaction of which two body systems? (1) digestive and endocrine (2) muscular and skeletal (3) reproductive and excretory (4) circulatory and digestive 51. A broken bone heals through the process of (1) adaptation (3) cell division (2) mutation (4) chemical digestion Which human body system performs these functions? (1) skeletal (3) circulatory (2) digestive (4) respiratory 58. The amount of sugar in blood is controlled by the release of a hormone called insulin. This process is an example of (1) depletion (3) regulation (2) digestion (4) excretion 52. Which diagram represents one type of human tissue? 53. Which process is shown by the equation below? (1) circulation (2) reproduction (3) locomotion (4) respiration 62. Insulin and glucagon are hormones that affect blood sugar levels. The diagram below shows the feedback system used by the human body to increase & decrease blood sugar levels. 59. Scurvy is a disease that sailors often got on long voyages. Scurvy could be prevented by eating oranges & lemons. This suggests that scurvy is caused by (1) exposure to sea air (3) a microorganism (2) a nutritional deficiency (4) lack of exercise 60. The sum of all chemical reactions in the human body is known as (1) feedback (3) dynamic equilibrium (2) metabolism (4) biological adaptation 61. Which human system produces sperm or egg cells? (1) digestive system (3) respiratory system (2) nervous system (4) reproductive system 63. Complete the table below by identifying the human organ system that performs each function listed. The first row has been completed. CIRCULATORY This feedback system is one way that the human body (1) circulates gases (3) destroys viruses (2) maintains equilibrium (4) transports nutrients DIGESTIVE RESPIRATORY *Base your answers to questions 64-65 on the diagram below that represents a human organ system. Arrows show the directions of blood flow. Letters A & B represent locations in this system. 64. Identify the human organ system responsible for the movement of blood shown in the diagram. __________________ system CIRCULATORY 65. State one reason why blood at location B contains more oxygen than blood at location A. IT HAS JUST LEFT THE LUNGS. __________________________________________ 66. The table below lists two structures in the human digestive system and two functions of each. Complete the table by circling the type of digestion represented by each function described.