wwww.coe.int Language development and learning in multilingual settings Ingrid Gogolin & Joana Duarte University of Hamburg What to expect 1. Introduction 2. Language acquisition and development: from toddler to schoolchild 3. Support in early language acquisition 4. Summary and outlook 5. Questions for group discussion © Duarte/ Gogolin 2012 Introduction • Education institutions ⇨ social cohesion and respect for human rights • Most education systems have problems to deal with disadvantaged pupils in a way that reduces their disadvantages • Explanations: individual factors, background factors & characteristics of education systems • Foci of the presentation: – aspects relevant to education establishments and their room for manœuvre – period of early language development and the transition into (primary) school Language acquisition and development: from toddler to schoolchild What is language? phonetic and phonology L1 Areas of focus for most literal pragmatic educational institutions L 2 (L3) Language discursive semantic Morphosyntactic based on Ehlich 2005 How is language acquired? language aquisition = complex phenomenon Perspectives on language acquisition The language acquisition continuum The shift from intuitive to cognitive language learning entails different methods of We did the - hum - invention support Ayşe: or instruction of the air balloon... I don‘t know how it‘s called… Child (4): Did you see that Teacher: The experiment with the air big / long – hum - car? to explicit balloon. Mother: Yeah, it was a big Ayşe: The experiment with the air truck. balloon. Child: I like big trucks. Quehl, 2009 from implicit Stages of language acquisition • 12-24 months: playing with sounds uttering single words Foundation: gaining • 24-30 months: experimenting with first words permodifying day; structures 20-30 (subject-verb; verbs; developing using content words, ‘grammar’ no function words) • 30-36 months: producing structures (utterances of 2-5 words with little extra morphology, morphological overgeneralization, easier and more productive morphemesFine-tuning come fist) (5-10 yrs.) refining grammar, extending lexicon etc. The U-Curve 1. Non-analysed forms: went No errors but transition phenomena 3. Discovery of the rule and exceptions went man/men 2. Discovery of the rule went *goed man *mans apparent regression men Factors affecting language acquisition Individual Age Familial Educational Socio-economic status Interaction Cognitive Opportunities development NegativeInteraction attitudes, low for language use expectations, lack of Motivation opportunities for language use Literacy orientations Classroom culture Learning style affect language acquisition Teacher Experienced Discrimination Attitudes expectations Instructional towards L1 Proficiency in feedback other languages Motivation Language acquisition & use Multingualism in practice The Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (as an example) harbours people from roughly 200 nations – such as: Turkey 55,000 Poland Ghana Philippines China India South Africa Malaysia Language diversity = ‚normal‘ 20,000 5,000 4,500 3,500 2,500 400 300 setting of language development, at least in European urban areas Uganda Lesotho 42 1 Source: Public Record Office, 2009 Language acquisition Simultaneous early language acquisition Successive language acquisition Basic idea: monolingualism = norm; bilingualism = exception Reality: Multilingualism as context The individual‘s plurilingual repertoire is made up of various languages he / she has absorbed in various ways (childhood learning, teaching, independent acquisition, etc.) and in which he / she has acquired different skills (conversation, reading, listening, etc.) to different levels (Beacco, 2005). Europe celebrates….. Celebrations Open question: how can we optimally support language acquisition in linguistic diversity European Day of (resulting in: a balanced Languages combination of access to the majority language(s) [language(s) of schooling] & of foreign languages International Year & Languages heritage languages the plurilingual repertoires) The language mode continuum It can be any of the speaker‘s languages Language X Basic Language Monolingual Mode Bilingual Mode Language Mixed Mode 1 Language Mode 2 Language Y 3 Degree of activation of languages Grosjean 1999 Features of ‚plurilingual normality‘ (1): Switching, mixing Language mixing in children: (1) tu DO THAT avec la table • Strategies to compensate for possible you do that with the table lack of knowledge (2) moi, I GETphenomenon DOWN Transition which tends to disappear with me, I get down acquisition French-English bilingual 3:8 (in: Jisa, 2000) Language mixing, switching: Indicators of plurilingual competence (and also common practice of ‘monolingual’ adolescents in multilingual areas) Features of ‚plurilingual normality‘ (2): metalinguistic competence „Also mir fiel es also sehr leicht, Französisch, Spanisch und ebenso auch Englisch zu lernen, weil Englisch auch römische Wörter benutzt, und da jaEarly Spanisch, Portugiesisch undof Französisch acquisition romanische Sprachen sind, besteht eine gewisse Ähnlichkeit da language zwischen diesen Sprachen, undawareness deswegen, wenn / ich das verglichen hab, das istmetalinguistic immer dieselbe Struktur, und manchmal auch die gleichen Wörter, oder ähnliche Wörter. Hier zum competence Beispiel, hier ist sogar ´n Beispiel im Buch, „Garten“, in Deutsch cognitive heißt das „Garten“, in Englischadvantage „garden“, auf Französisch support of language „jardin“, auf Portugiesisch „jardim“ und auf Spanisch heißt es „el jardin“, und deswegen, ja, das kann schon automatisch so acquisition inman general machen.“ (Schüler mit Portugiesisch als Herkunftssprache; Hu, 2003) Features of ‚plurilingual normality‘ (3): Transfer Common Underlying Proficiency Cummins, BICS&CALP Examples for Transfer Knowledge that written symbols correspond to sounds and can be decoded in order and direction How school genres work (narrating, explaining, etc.) Activation of semantic and syntactic knowledge Knowledge of text structure Learning to use cues to predict meaning Awareness of the variety of purposes for reading and writing Confidence in oneself as literate … Research suggests “that academic and linguistic skills in a minority language transfer relatively easily to the second = advantage – language. Transfer Simply stated, a child who learns to read in Spanish at home, orISin school, PROVIDED THAT IT does not have to start from the beginning when learning to read in English”. SUPPORTED BY TEACHING(Baker, 2006, p. 330) “Foundations of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education” Summary: multilingual language acquisition • Acquisition takes place by unconsciously generating rules – learning takes place explicitly • Errors indicate that learning is taking place • Switching, mixing, metalinguistic repertoires, transfer are indicators for succeeding and successful development of … • … plurilingual repertoires • … 3. Language support in early years Principles and examples Source: http://www.ojeichwachse.de/wpcontent/uploads/2011/03/Tegen-je-baby-praten-is-goedvoor-zijn-ontwikkeling.jpg Cummins’ Quadrants Model of Academic Language Cognitively Undemanding •Oral: talking in the family, •Oral: phone conversations following simple directions, •Written: notes, written face toFrom face discussions directions Aim of early language support intuitive, •Written: informal mailsshould be to help children implicit… moveAfromCquadrant A to D, in Context Reduced Context Embedded terms of emergent literacy B Dforms. •Oral: demonstrations, audio-visual assisted lessons, science experiments •Written: social studies project Oral: lecture, explaining new & abstract concepts …to Written: Readingcognitive, a textbook, matching concepts & application Cognitively Demanding explicit strategies Video on early language support Thank you, merci & danke Questions for discussion in the groups Language support will succeed to the extent that it follows children’s preferred acquisition or learning strategies. 1. What features of your context support the implementation of this principle? 2. What features of your context are likely to undermine the implementation of this principle? 3. If you could start an innovation programme for the implementation of this principle in your context, what measure would you introduce as a first step?