instruction

Report
ARM CPU Internal I
Prof. Taeweon Suh
Computer Science Education
Korea University
Overview
• For the sake of your understanding, we simplify the
CPU and its system structure
Real-PC system
CPU
FSB
(Front-Side Bus)
Main
Memory
(DDR)
Address Bus
Simplified
ARM CPU
North
Bridge
Data Bus
DMI
(Direct Media I/F)
Memory
(Instruction,
data)
South
Bridge
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Actual ARM Connection
• ARM CPU has separate connections to memory (caches)
ARM920T
Instruction fetch
Address Bus
Instruction
Cache
Data Bus
Address Bus
ARM CPU core
Address Bus
Data Bus
Data
Cache
Data Bus
Memory
Instruction/
Data access
Data access
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Overview
• Microarchitecture is composed of datapath and control
 Datapath operates on words of data
• Datapath elements are used to operate on or hold data within a processor
• Datapath elements include the register file, ALU, muxes, and memory
 Control tells the datapath how to execute instructions
• Control unit receives the current instruction from the datapath and tells the
datapath how to execute that instruction
• Specifically, the control unit produces mux select, register enable, ALU
control, and memory write signals to control the operation of the datapath
• Essential ARM instructions
 Data processing instructions: add, sub, cmp, and, or
 Memory access instructions: ldr, str
 Branch instructions: b, bl
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Instruction Execution in CPU
• Generic steps of the instruction execution in CPU
 Fetch uses the program counter (PC) to supply the instruction
address and fetch instruction from memory
 Decoding decodes instruction and reads operands
• Extract opcode: determine what operation should be done
• Extract operands: register numbers or immediate from fetched instruction
 Execution
• Use ALU to calculate (depending on instruction class)
 Arithmetic or logical result
 Memory address for load/store
 Branch target address
ARM CPU core
Fetch with PC
PC = PC +4
• Access memory for load/store
Address Bus
Data Bus
Address Bus
 Next Fetch
Execute
• PC  target address or PC + 4
Decode
Instruction/
Data
Memory
Data Bus
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Instruction Fetch
ARM CPU core
Increment by 4 for
the next instruction
4
Add
Memory
reset
clock
Address
PC
Out
32
instruction
32-bit register (flip-flops)
• What is PC on reset in ARM?
 PC = 0x0000_0000
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Memory
• Memory is classified into RAM (Random Access
Memory) and ROM (Read-Only Memory)
 RAM is classified into DRAM (Dynamic RAM) and SRAM
(Static RAM)
 DDR is a kind of DRAM
• DDR is a short form of DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM
(Synchronous DRAM)
• DDR is used as main memory in modern computers
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Simple ARM Test Code
assemble
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Instruction Decoding
• Instruction decoding separates the fetched
instruction into the fields
 Opcode determines which operation the instruction
wants to do
• Control logic should be designed to supply control signals to
datapath elements (such as ALU and register file)
 Operands
• Register numbers in the instruction are sent to the register file
• Immediate field is either sign-extended or zero-extended
depending on instructions*
*It seems immediate is zero-extended in ARM case. If you write “add r1, r2, #-12”, assembler generates
“sub r1, r2, 12”. The shifter operand could be “logical (or arithmetic) shift right a register by immediate. In
this case, the register is zero-filled or signed-filled in the shifted vacant bits
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Schematic with Instruction Decoding
ARM CPU
Opcode
Control
Unit
RegWrite
Register
File
Inst[19:16] (=Rn)
R0
Inst [3:0] (=Rm)
R1
R2
32
Rn
32
Rm
R3
instruction
Inst[15:12] (=Rd)
wd 32
…
R14
R15 (PC)
RegWrite
Memory
imm
8
zeroextended
4
32
Add
Out
32
reset
clock
10
PC
Address
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Instruction Execution #1
• Arithmetic and logical instructions
 Examples: add, adc, sub, sbc, cmp, mov, and, or …
 Two source operands
• One is always a register
• The other has two basic forms: Immediate or register (optionally shifted)
add opcode: 0100
add
r1, r2, r3
sub opcode: 0010
sub
r1, r2, r3
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# r1 = r2 + r3
# r1 = r2 – r3
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Data Processing Instruction Formats
Source: ARM Architecture Reference Manual
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Schematic with Instruction Execution #1
ARM CPU
opcode
Control
Unit
ALUSrc
RegWrite
Register
File
Inst[19:16] (=Rn)
R0
Inst [3:0] (=Rm)
R1
R2
32
Rn
ALUSrc
R3
instruction
Inst[15:12] (=Rd)
wd 32
…
32
ALU
Rm
mux
R14
R15 (PC)
RegWrite
Memory
imm
8
zeroextended
4
32
Add
Out
32
reset
clock
13
PC
Address
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Instruction Execution #2
• Memory access instructions
 ldr, str instructions
ldr
R1, [R2, #4] // R1 <= [R2 + 4]
str
R1, [R2,R3]
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// [R2 + R3] <= R1
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Memory Access Instruction Formats
• Load and Store Word or Unsigned Byte instructions
Source: ARM Architecture Reference Manual
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Schematic with Instruction Execution #2
ARM CPU
opcode
MemWrite
MemtoReg
8-or-12
ALUSrc
RegWrite
Control
Unit
Inst [3:0] (=Rm)
R0
32
Inst[15:12] (=Rd)
wd 32
…
WriteData
Rn
ReadData
R1
R2
ALUSrc
R3
instruction
Memory
Rd
Register
File
Inst[19:16] (=Rn)
MemWrite
32
ALU
Address
Rm
MemtoReg
mux
R30
R31
mux
8-or-12
Memory
imm
8
12
ldr
str
zeroextended
4
Out
32
R1, [R2, #4] // R1 <= [R2 + 4]
R1, [R2, R3] // [R2 + R3] <= R1
32
Add
reset
clock
16
PC
Address
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Instruction Execution #3
• Execution of the branch and jump instructions
 b, bl instructions
b
target (offset)
Destination = (PC + 8) + sign-extend (imm << 2)
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Schematic with Instruction Execution #3
(B)
ARM CPU
opcode
branch
Control
Unit
MemWrite
Memory
Register
File
Inst[19:16] (=Rn)
R0
Inst [3:0] (=Rm)
R1
R2
Rd
32
Rn
ReadData
ALUSrc
R3
Inst[15:12] (=Rd)
instruction
wd 32
…
WriteData
32
ALU
Address
Rm
MemtoReg
mux
R14
R15 (PC)
mux
8-or-12
imm
12
imm
24
zeroextended
branch
mux
Add
32
Memory
4
32
Add
Out
Sign extension
<<2
reset
clock
32
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Note that Branch Destination = (PC+8) + (sign-extend) (imm << 2)}
PC
Address
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