A Pilot Project in the Thermal Power Plant of NALCO, USA (Pradhan).

Report
International Workshop on Public Education, Training, and
Community Outreach for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and
Storage July 30 - 31, 2014 Decatur, Illinois, USA
Prof. Ranjan R. Pradhan (PhD)
Proprietor, Indocan Technology Solutions (Canada)
C. V. Raman College of Engineering
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Climate change and our project
Concept of the project
Implementation of the project
Characterization of the Product from the
project
Conclusion
Carbon Sequestration Pilot Plant
NALCO, - CPPAngul, Odisha, India
How to Address Global Climate Change?
The scale of CO2 disposal need far exceeds today's CO2 uses.
Sustainable CO2 capture and storage is at a reasonable cost
can be a good alternative to utilize the abundantly available
coal resources in India.
To solve the negative consequences there are two broad ways
of fixing the global warming made by mankind.
These are:
•CDR (Carbon dioxide removal) and
• SRM (Solar radiation management)
CDR (Carbon dioxide removal)
Sustainable Carbon Capture For Thermal Power Plants
Thermal power plants, though a developmental need for
India is a major GHG polluter (Thermal power plants
contribute 25 % of the global GHG emission)
Extent of Pollution & Opportunity
500 MW thermal power plant generates about 8000 tons of
CO2 per day
(This is a huge resource if can be reused)
What are we missing in our existing practices?
500 MW thermal power plant generates about 8000 tons of CO2 per day
Forest land needed to capture this emission
A hectare of pine forest can capture about 1 ton carbon dioxide / year, So
we need about 29200 sq km land or roughly 20 % of total area of Odisha
The dilemma!
Either restrict the growth & promotion of many thermal power plants
Or facilitate adequate forest coverage to compensate for the emissions
Neither of the above can be acceptable, and we need to look for feasible
alternates for low carbon economy & support mandates of Kyoto protocol
To sustain economic growth, potential alternates of low carbon
economy must be adopted
Two major possible technologies
Algae-based Capture
Technology
Geological Sequestration
Technology
Sustainable
Social problems arises
Safe
Untested on large scale
No need to transport CO2
Need to transport CO2 to
sequestration site
Generates biomass
No additional revenue
Coupled with wastewater
treatment
Coupled with oil recovery
$ = carbon credit + nutrient
credit + biomass
$ = carbon credit
Major issues to drive policy decisions for Algal technology
1. Climate change mandate
2. Vast land use change in India.
(Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change –IPCC reported land use change is one
of the major contributor to carbon emission, i.e. equivalent to 25% of all the fossil
fuel and cement plants emission combined)
3. India is rightly place for the technology to evolve –
a) Optimum Climate and more than 340 days of sunshine
b) Large number of coal based power plants being built
c) Carbon dioxide is a very useful resource for algae industry & should not be
wasted
d) Algal biomass will initiate a new resource for biorefinery value chain
Concept
The amount of CO2 sequestered in-Tons/ Acre/Year
Calculation for Per Acre:
Carbon Content Assumed in Biomass is ~ 50 %
( Reference : Knowledge Reference, National Forest Assessments,
Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations,
http://www.fao.org/forestry/17111/en/
Carbon to Amount CO2
1 mole of carbon give 1 mol of CO2
Molecular wt of C = 12 & CO2 is 44
So Molar ratio = 44/12 = 3.6 ( 1 kg of carbon is equivalent to 3.6 kg of CO2)
Biomass is a Bonus
(in addition to capture)!
Key Players
End Use of Algae
Seambiotic
Food additives, Fish feed and biofuels
MBD
Algae oil
Linc Energy
Biodiesel, Fertilizers and power.
Trident Exploration
Electricity
RWE energy
Biogas plant
Glenturret Whisky distillery
Animal feed for cattle and Shellfish farms
NALCO, India
Biorefinery Value Chain
Construction of Ponds :
Flugas Supply line from Duct of Unit – 7 and 8
Ducts from Unit 7 & 8
Heat exchanger, scrubber
& cooling tower erected
GROWTH CURVE OF MICROALGAE IN COMMERCIAL
MEDIA(BATCH1,BATCH2,BATCH3)
GROWTH CURVE OF MICROALGAE IN
LOBORATORY (Strain 2)
400
T
350
U
300
R
250
B
200
I
150
D
100
I
NTU 50
T
0
Y
300
250
T
U
R
B
I
D
I
T
Y
200
150
100
50
0
0
5
10
TIME
Time - Days
0
2
4
TIME - Days
6
8
15
20
Recovered Algal Biomass
Potential
•Plants can tolerate less CO2 ( ~ 450
PPM)
•Plants growth has been increased
by three times by enhancing CO2
conc. to about 450 ppm
•Algae can tolerate higher CO2
Conc (> 20 % CO2 OR 200,000 ppm)
•Algae growth rate can be enhanced
upto 10 – 20 times with enhanced
CO2 in lab scale
Thermal
characterization of
algae biomass and
algae oil
NALCO – CPP
Flue Gas
@ 135 °C
12 – 15 % CO2
Flue gas is
processed to
make Suitable
for
Sequestration
Application
Biomass Value
Chain and
Utilization
Technologies
Bacterial Mass
Cultivation
System
Operation
aided with flue
gas
Biomass
Recovery
System &
Quantification
Process / Technology Flow
Applications
Biorefinery
A biorefinery is a facility that
integrates biomass conversion
processes and equipment to
produce fuels, power, and
chemicals from biomass. The
biorefinery concept is analogous
to today's petroleum refineries,
which produce multiple fuels
and products from petroleum..
Process Conclusion
Algae – A Promising & Future Biomass from Flue gas:
Each gram of algae will capture 1.8 gm of CO2.
Cogeneration system of 16M m3 biogas capacity = ~ 260
tons of algae.
Biogas generation efficiency = 0.26 – 0.34 m3 /KG volatile
solids (VS) added.
Algae biomass @ 89 % VS content potentially can produce
~ 115,000 m3 biogas for generating at least 55,000 KW4 of
carbon negative electrical energy each cycle.
With an algal cultivation system the equivalent forest land
requirement can be reduces by a factor of 10, as more than 10
times biomass can be generate, and depending on the end us,
the carbon sequestration may be valued further.
Challenges yet to be addressed
Land availability near power plant
Retrofitting algae systems in existing power plants
Economic viability demonstration in India
Industrial perception
Encouraging Socio Economic and Awareness of CCS
with microalgae
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The ministry of 'environment and forests'
(Govt. of India) is now ministry of
'environment, forests and climate change',
Inclusive National Education Policy
Inclusive Regional education policy
Local Environmental Associations and NGO
Questions
Thank you
www.ranjanpradhan.com
www.indocantechnologysolutions .com

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