Present - University of Pittsburgh

Report
MINDFULNESS
SKILLS GROUP
FOR PEOPLE WITH
DISABILITIES
KELLY BECK
SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND
REHABILITATION SCIENCES,
REHABILITATION COUNSELING
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Support and Collaboration by:
University of Pittsburgh, Cognitive Skills Enhancement Program
Hiram G. Andrews Center
The Albert Schweitzer Fellowship, Pittsburgh
The Children’s Institute
Three Rivers Center for Independent Living
MINDFULNESS
“Paying attention on purpose in the present moment,
without judgment or reaction to whatever appears in
the field of your experience”
(Kabat-Zinn, 1985)
•
Originally a Buddhist principle
•
Developed into non-religious therapeutic interventions by Jon Kabat-Zinn
•
Holistic wellness & preventative care
•
Assisting people in coping with everyday lives and obstacles
MINDFULNESS BASED INTERVENTIONS
8-12 weeks group program, 1-3 hours formal per week
• Self Reflection
• Self-motivated
• Non-judgmental, non-reactive
• Suspend believing in judgments as being true.
• Inherent acceptance of pain and suffering
Activities
 Mind-Body Relaxation
• Meditation
• Gentle Yoga
• Breathing Exercises
DISABILITIES & MINDFULNESS
BARRIERS OF
DISABILITIES
More likely to experience….
MINDFULNESS BENEFITS
Increased life satisfaction
•
Unemployment
Increased quality of life
•
Poverty
Acceptance of disability
•
Inadequate healthcare
Increased autonomy
•
Socializing barriers
Less anxiety
•
Less satisfaction with life
Strategies for stress management
•
More stress
…..Than people without disabilities
CHRONIC PAIN & MINDFULNESS
CHRONIC PAIN
RESEARCHED
MINDFULNESS BENEFITS
Low levels life satisfaction
Increased life satisfaction
Increased stress
Increased autonomy & activity
Decreased activity
Increased community
participation
Lack of community
participation
Acceptance of pain
Helplessness
Pain management techniques
Pharmacological side effects
Non-pharmacological
strategies
COGNITIVE DISABILITIES & MINDFULNESS
COGNITIVE DISABILITIES
RESEARCHED
MINDFULNESS BENEFITS
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Decrease aggressive behaviors
Traumatic Brain Injury
Regulation of thoughts, emotions, &
behaviors
Stroke
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder
Learning Disability
Developmental Delay
Cerebral Palsy
Spina Bifida
Improved attention control
Decrease anxiety
Improved life satisfaction
Improved awareness
GROUP DIFFERENCES
15 people, Ages 18-24
80% Caucasian, Male
15 people, Ages 35+
90% African American,
Female
Cognitive Disabilities
Ages 11-17
90% Caucasian
RND Pain Disorders
Significant Disabilities
Enrolled in cognitive
rehabilitation program
TRCIL Consumers
High IQ, Athletic
Dependent on ACCESS
Outpatient
Voluntary
Voluntary, Parental
consent
Post Secondary Education
Attendance Required
PURPOSE & GOALS
1. Attention Control
1. Life Satisfaction
1. Awareness of Self
1. Make life more
fulfilling
2. Stress Management
1. Awareness of Present
4. Regulation of
4. Socialization
Emotions
5. Increase Participation
5. Regulation of thoughts 6. Decreased Stress
6. Decrease Anxiety
Levels
1. Life Satisfaction
2. Regulation of
Emotions
3. Diaphragmatic
Breathing
4. Pain Management
5. Expression of Pain
6. Loving Kindness of
Pain
CONTENT
• Education of attention
types
• Present Moment
Awareness
• Non-judgmental
• Develop Attention Skills
Awareness
• Minding your pain
• Expression of pain
• Diaphragmatic
breathing
• Mindfulness
Awareness
• Meditation
• Stress Management
• Non-judgmental loving
kindness
• Meditation
• Adaptive Yoga
• Stress Reduction
• Mindfulness Meditation
Strategies
• Socialization
MEASURES
Mindfulness Awareness
Attention Scale
Satisfaction with Life
Scale
Mindfulness Awareness
Attention Scale
Satisfaction with Life
Scale
Perceived Stress Scale
Satisfaction with Life
Scale
State Trait Anxiety Scale
Consumer Report and
Feedback
Perceived Stress Scale
Pain Scales
CSEP RESEARCH DESIGN
• Pre, Post Measures
• 12 Week curriculum
• Weekly, forty-five minute sessions
• Consistent Group Leaders
• Weekly homework
• Embedded within larger cognitive rehabilitation program
• Statistical analyses
PRELIMINARY RESULTS
CSEP
•
Statistical analyses and results are pending.
•
2 term thesis project.
•
First term data collected
TRCIL
•
4/12 group sessions completed
•
“Does wonders for helping me to learn to be more aware of my body”
•
“Relieves tension in my body and allowed me to focus on my ‘safe place’-which is my
breathing’
•
“I nearly slept, which is virtually impossible”
The Children’s Institute
•
Group begins in January, results analyzed by May
MINDFULNESS AND DISABILITY
• Mindfulness effective and desired across disabilities
• Empowerment, advocacy, and preventative health
• Embracing disability, mind, body
• Health and group socialization benefits
FUTURE RESEARCH
• Stress and disability
• Both environmental stress and disability negatively impact
function
• Environmental barriers increase stress for those with
disabilities
• Stress management interventions across disabilities
• Funding/Policy changes for environmental stress and
disability
REFERENCES
Bohlmeijer, E., Prenger, R., Taal, E., Cuijper, P., (2010). The effects of miandfulness-based
stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease:
A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 539-544.
Dorjee, D. (2010). Kinds and dimensions of mindfulness: Why it is important to distinguish
them. Mindfulness, 1, 152-160.
Hwang, Y. and Kearney, P., (2013). A systematic review of mindfulness intervention for
individuals with developmental disabilities: Long-term practice and long lasting
effects. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 314-325.
Haydicky, J., Wiener, J., Badali, P., Milligan, K., Ducharme, J. M., et al. (2012). Evaluation of a
mindfulness-based intervention for adolescents with learning disabilities and cooccuring ADHD and anxiety. Mindfulness 3, 151-164.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MSBR). Constructivism in the
Human Sciences, 8:2, 73-83.
Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R. (1985). The clinican use of mindfulness meditation
for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8:2, 163-189.
REFERENCES
Marchard, W. R. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive
therapy, and
zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. Journal of Psychiatric Practice,
18:4, 233-252.
McCown, D., Reibel, D., Micozzi, M. S. (2010). Teaching Mindfulness: A practical guide for
educators. New York: Springer. (Introduction Information)
clinicians and
McMillan, T., Robertson, I. H., Brock, D., Chorlton, L., et al. (2002). Brief mindfulness training
for attentional
problems after traumatic brain injury: A randomized control
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Rehabilitation, 12: 2, 117-125.
Miller, J. J., Fletcher, K., Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Three year follow-up and clinical implications
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Hospital Psychiatry, 17, 192-200.
Paulik, G., Simcocks, A., Weiss, L., Albert, S. (2010). Benefits of a 12-week mindfulness
program for mental health consumers in an outpatient setting. Mindfulness, 1, 215-226.
group
Robertson, B. L. (2011). The adaptation and application of mindfulness-based
psychotherapeutic practices
for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Fletcher,
R., J. (Ed), Psychotherapy for individuals
with intellectual disability (pp. 91-106). New
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Singh, N., Lancioni, G., Manikam, R., Winton, A., Singh, A., Singh, J., Singh, A. D., (2011). A
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