Homeostasis

Report
Catalyst: (Top of page 72) What are the
four main components in your blood?
Agenda
Catalyst
Quiz and MELCon return
Blood Handout
Objective
 Identify the different components of blood
Unit 2 Homeostasis
Homeostasis
Homeo- means similar
Stasis- means balance
Homeostasis – Is the internal
balance maintained by an
organism
Homeostasis
 Each cell is responsible for maintaining
internal balance.
 What types of things does your body
need to keep in balance?
 Hydration (water), Blood Sugar, salts,
temperature, pH…..to name just a few
Homeostasis
 The nutrients you absorb through your
food have to get distributed throughout
your body
 How can the cells on the top of my head
maintain the same homeostasis as the
cells on the bottom of my feet?
 Your body is a connected system with
BLOOD being at the center of it all
Blood- how much
 How much blood do you have in your body?
 It depends on your size
 A 150lb man has ~8pints (5.2L)
 A 110lb woman has ~5 pints (3.3L)
 Average woman has 6-7 pints (4-4.5L)
 Average man has over 7 pints ( 4.5-5.5L)
Catalyst: Where is blood
made in your body?
Agenda
Catalyst
Components of blood
Types of blood vessels
Capillaries
Objective
 Identify the four components of blood and their functions
 Identify the three types of blood vessels and how they
distribute blood throughout your body
Blood- How is it made?
 Blood is made in your bones…
 What? I thought bones were solid? How can
they make a liquid?
 In the Bone Marrow
Bone Marrow Transplants
• People with
blood
disorders and
cancers of the
blood like
leukemia will
often need
bone marrow
transplants.
Blood- What’s in it?
 Red blood cells
 White blood cells
 Platelets
 Plasma
Catalyst: If blood is made in
your bone marrow what does
your heart do?
Reminders:
 Lab reports are due to me by 3:45pm or
they are LATE. Please email me
[email protected] your report if you are
unable to print it (emergencies ONLY).
Please start bringing your book
to class every day.
Agenda
Catalyst & Reminders
Blood Vessels
Heart
Making Exchanges in the body
Objectives:
 Identify the three types of blood vessels
 Identify the path blood takes throughout the human body
Blood Videos
 http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/humanbo
dy/cardiovascular/Video/CapillaryVideo.htm
Types of blood vessels
 ______________- large blood vessels that carry
oxygen rich blood from the heart & lungs
throughout the body
 ______________- small blood vessels that allow for
the diffusion of molecules from the blood into cells.
(molecules like Oxygen, salts, sugars and small
proteins)
 ______________- larger blood vessels that carry blood
and cell waste products back to the heart and lungs.
How blood vessels connect
Capillaries
 Why would blood slow down when it enters a capillary? (find 2
reasons)
 Red blood cells go through capillaries SINGLE FILE
 Capillaries are ONE CELL LAYER THICK
 Capillaries facilitate the exchange of wastes, nutrients, gases and
hormones between the blood and body cells.
 Change in pressure between the capillary and the tissue allow for
diffusion
 Capillaries are so small and so abundant that cells are never more
than 1/4000 of an inch from a capillary. (less than the thickness of
your finger nail.
The Heart
 If blood is made in bone marrow
then what does your heart do?
 About the size of your fist
 Is a large muscle that pumps the
blood around your body.
 Beats ~100,000/day ~
35,000,000/year
 Has four chambers
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
RzscxSavKp8
 When the heart contracts it creates
pressure that moves your blood
Catalyst: What types of molecules get
exchanged between the blood and your lungs?
Agenda
Homework review
Types of exchanges
The Breath of Life
Objectives: SWBAT
 Identify the three main types of blood vessels
 Describe the types of molecular exchanges that happen
between the blood and body tissues.
Pop Quiz
(you can use your notes) 
 Use the following words to fill in the sentences : diffusion, Carbon dioxide,
oxygen, veins, capillaries, arteries, wastes.
Oxygen
 __________- rich blood comes from the lungs and goes into the left side of the
heart.
Arteries
Arteries
 Blood gets carried away from your heart by ______________. (___________=
away)
Capillaries
 From there blood goes into the smallest blood vessels called_______________ .
Diffusion
 __________________of
oxygen and other nutrients takes place in the capillaries.
Carbon dioxide and it gets
Wastes
 After that the cells diffuse _____________like
_________________
picked up by the red blood cell.
 Blood travels back toward the heart in __________________.
The whole process
Veins
repeats
Tracing the Blood Pg. 226
 The blood starts in the capillaries of the
toe.
 The red blood cell moves into a vein up
the left leg, that brings it back to the
heart and lungs.
 Enters the right side of the heart gets
pumped into the lungs
 The blood enters the left side of the
heart and gets pumped out into an
artery.
 It travels in an artery down the right leg.
 The artery branches into smaller
capillaries that bring the red blood cell
to the other toe.
Catalyst: (NB pg. 74 What types
of exchange are made between
the blood and the kidneys?
Agenda
Catalyst
Making exchanges
Gas exchange system
Objectives: SWBAT
 Explain how diffusion is used to exchange oxygen and CO 2
in the gas exchange system.
Making Exchanges
Pg. 224-226 & pg 166
Tissues
of the
toe
Types of
exchanges
with the
blood
Tissues
of the
kidneys
Kidneys filter
Red Blood out excess
water, salts
Cells
and Nitrogen
diffuse
oxygen into based wastes
(urea) from
tissues
blood
Toe cells
diffuse CO2
into red
blood cell
Tissues
of the
lungs
Tissues of Tissues
the
of the
intestines Liver
Red blood
cells collect
oxygen in
lungs and
release CO2
that was
collected
from cells
throughout
the body
Intestine
tissues
release,
sugar, salts,
fats and
proteins into
the blood
Liver filters
out toxins
from the
blood like
alcohol and
other
harmful
chemicals
Gas Exchange System
(Respiratory System)
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc1YtXc_84A
Your lungs
Alveoli
Asthma
Smoking causes PERMINENT
damage to Alveoli
Breath of life
 Pg. 236-239
 Please READ silently
 Take NOTES (notebook pg. 75)
 ANSWER QUESTIONS 1- 8 (notebook pg. 78)
Catalyst: What is the role of the
alveoli in gas exchange?
 Please draw the following image into your notes:
Agenda
Catalyst
Homework review
Stepping up the Pace lab
HW: Answer questions 8-12 from lab sheet
Objectives SWBAT
 Follow simple experimental procedures
 Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular
system responds to environmental changes
The Breath of Life
Homework Review
1.
The gas exchange system; nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, lungs and
diaphram.
2.
Nosetracheavocal cordsbronchial tubeslungs alveoli
3.
alveoli
4.
Increases the amount of oxygen that can move into the body’s internal
environment and the carbon dioxide that can move out.
5.
The oxygen diffuses across the alveolar membranes
6.
Hemoglobin is a special protein that is found on a red blood cell. It allows
Oxygen (O2) from the atmosphere to bond to the red blood cell.
7.
When you exercise your cells release more carbon dioxide. Blood becomes
acidic in the presence of carbon dioxide. Nerves react to the increased
acidity and send a message to the respiratory centers to increase your
breathing rate.
Catalyst: What is the control group
for the ‘stepping up the pace’
experiment?
Agenda
Catalyst
HW Review
Lab
Objectives
 Follow simple experimental procedures
 Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular
system responds to environmental changes
Stepping up the Pace Lab
Questions 8-12
Homework Review
8. What is the most appropriate independent variable for this
experiment? (what are we changing from tril to trial?)
D-Intensity of exercise
9. What is the most appropriate dependent variable for this
experiment? (what are we measuring?)
A- Heart rate (pulse)
10. What would be the most appropriate hypothesis for this
experiment? (If…independent variable…then…dependent
variable)
D- If a person exercises with increasing intensity, then their heart
rate will increase and will take longer to return to normal.
Stepping up the Pace Lab
Questions 8-12
Homework Review
11. What is the most appropriate control for this
experiment? (what is the ‘normal condition’ we can use to
compare?)
A- Participants resting pulse rate
12. What are the controlled variables that would need to
stay constant during the experiment? (circle all that apply)
 a. Time spent exercising
 b. Intensity of exercise
 c. height of step
Stepping Up the Pace Lab
Exercise Number Exercise Intensity
Exercise 1
One step (up and down) every 6 sec for 1 min
Exercise 2
One step (up and down) every 3 sec for 1 min
Exercise 3
One step (up and down) every 1 sec for 1 min
 Find 3 desks to brace against a lab table for the step-ups
 All three participants exercise at the SAME TIME
 Research director is responsible for calling out when to step (YOU WILL
HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COUNT BY 6’S AND 3’S FOR ONE MIN)
 After exercise, participants NEVER
STOP taking their pulse!
 Write down your pulse every min!
Catalyst: What is the role of the
alveoli in gas exchange?
 Please draw the following image into your notes:
Catalyst: What do you expect to happen to
a persons pulse and respiratory rate when
they exercise?
Agenda
Catalyst
Pre-Lab
Stepping Up the Pace Lab
Objectives
 Follow simple experimental procedures
 Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular
system responds to environmental changes
Breath of Life Questions
Revisited Homework Review
1.
The gas exchange system; nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, lungs and
diaphram.
2.
Nosetracheavocal cordsbronchial tubeslungs alveoli
3.
alveoli
4.
Increases the amount of oxygen that can move into the body’s internal
environment and the carbon dioxide that can move out.
5.
The oxygen diffuses across the alveolar membranes
6.
Hemoglobin is a special protein that is found on a red blood cell. It allows
Oxygen (O2) from the atmosphere to bond to the red blood cell.
Stepping Up the Pace Lab
Exercise Number Exercise Intensity
Exercise 1
One step (up and down) every 6 sec for 1 min
Exercise 2
One step (up and down) every 3 sec for 1 min
Exercise 3
One step (up and down) every 1 sec for 1 min
 Find 3 desks to brace against a lab table for the step-ups
 All three participants exercise at the SAME TIME
 Research director is responsible for calling out when to step (YOU WILL
HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COUNT BY 6’S AND 3’S FOR ONE MIN)
 After exercise, participants NEVER
STOP taking their pulse!
 Write down your pulse every min!
Homework
Answer questions 8-12
on your lab sheet
Catalyst: What is Homeostasis? How
was your body maintaining
homeostasis in the lab?
Agenda
Catalyst
Homework Review
Graphing & Analysis
Objective SWBAT
 Graph and analyze data from the ‘Stepping Up the Pace Lab”
 Write a conclusion using data based evidence.
If you do NOT have data
Use mine…
Person
Exercise Resting Immedi 1 min
Pulse
ately
after
2min
3min
4min
Richter
1
88
133
115
90
87
87
2
87
135
110
95
88
88
3
88
130
108
90
87
86
1
65
118
100
80
70
65
2
65
120
108
90
65
3
65
125
98
80
65
1
72
100
80
73
2
73
110
78
73
3
73
110
81
73
Adams
Malink
ovich
5min
Analysis
1. Explain the purpose behind increasing the intensity of the
exercise between trials.
2. Which participant had the largest increase in pulse rate during
exercise 3? (IOD 501)
3. Which participant had the longest recovery time after exercise
3? (IOD 501)
4.
Which participant had the greatest difference between their
resting pulse rate and their maximum pulse rate? (IOD 401)
5. Which participant had the smallest difference between their
resting pulse and their maximum pulse rate after exercising?
(IOD401)
Conclusion
 Main Idea  Restate your hypothesis. Did you support or reject your
hypothesis?
 Evidence Use three pieces of evidence/data (exercise #, participant name,
(#)pulse rate, unit) to support your claims from the M- section above
 Link Explain your data in terms of how the circulatory and respiratory
system work together to maintain homeostasis.
 Conclusion Discuss how body systems work together to maintain homeostasis
when affected by stimuli from the environment.
Homework
Read “Homeostasis” pg.
229-231
Answer questions 1-7 in
your NOTEBOOK
Catalyst: What is Homeostasis? How
was your body maintaining
homeostasis in the lab?
Agenda
Catalyst
Homeostasis reading
Review and reflect
Objectives SWBAT
 Write a conclusion based on data evidence.
 Explain how homeostasis is maintained by body systems.
Connecting the lab to
Homeostasis…
With your lab group
Read “Homeostasis” pg.
229-231
Answer questions 1-7 in
your NOTEBOOK
Homeostasis Review
1. What is homeostasis?
2. How do complex organisms maintain homeostasis?
3. How do simple organisms maintain homeostasis?
4. What are two things required to maintain homeostasis?
5. What is stimulus? (plural = stimuli)
6. How does the body respond to stimulus, such as cold
temperature?
7. What are homeostasis and stimuli and why are they
important?
Conclusions
 Take a moment to think about what was just
discussed & review the last section of your
conclusion from your lab.
 The prompt asked you too: Discuss how body
systems work together to maintain homeostasis when
affected by stimuli from the environment.
 Add 3-4 sentences that show your enhanced
understanding after reading and discussing stimuli.
pg. 233-235
 Define:
 Feed Back System
 Positive Feedback Systems
 Find an example from the text
 Negative Feedback Systems
 Find an example from the text
Breath of Life recap…
7. Describe the feedback system that is involved in increasing
your breathing rate when you’re exercising.
When you exercise your cells release more carbon dioxide. Blood
becomes acidic in the presence of carbon dioxide. Nerves react to
the increased acidity and send a message to the respiratory
centers to increase your breathing rate.
Catalysts: (next open page) What will happen to you if your
homeostasis is thrown out of balance?
Agenda
Catalyst
Feedback systems
Objectives SWBAT
• Identify negative feedback systems
• Use an example a negative feedback system
in the human body
Principles of Homeostasis &
Feedback Mechanisms
... THE MAINTENANCE OF STATIC OR CONSTANT CONDITIONS IN
THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ...
External
Environment
External
Environment
Internal
Environment
External
Environment
External
Environment
Homeostasis is about staying the same ...
but ... things don’t stay the same ... They
CHANGE!
Conditions in the external environment change constantly ...
External
Environment
External
Environment
Internal
Environment
External
Environment
External
Environment
Internal Environment CANNOT change!
Homeostasis is about staying alive!
•For proper functioning , the the fluids around the cells
(“interstitial fluid”) must remain close to their best (optimal)
conditions.
•An organism is in homeostasis when the internal environment has
the optimal concentration of:
Gases
Nutrients
Ions & water
Temperature
Is not invaded by pathogens (anything that can make you
sick. Viruses, bacteria, etc…)
Maintaining Homeostasis
Organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis through:
• hormonal and nervous mechanisms
• The nervous system is the bodies ‘master control system’
As previously stated…..
The body must
• protect itself against pathogens
• regulate respiratory gases
• maintain fluid and salt balance
• regulate energy and nutrient supply
• maintain a constant body temperature
•
All these must be coordinated and appropriate responses made to
incoming stimuli.
• SensoryHomeostasis operates by
Receptors (eye,
control systems
ear, nerves pick
up signals)
• Control Center
(brain)
• Effectors (what
responds)
means of
Homeostasis is characterized by
Negative Feedback
1. Response is negative (opposite) to
the beginning stimulus
1. The control system starts a series of
changes that return the factor
toward the optimal value
1. Thus maintaining homeostasis.
• Oxygen must be delivered to
all cells and carbon dioxide
(a waste product of cellular
respiration) must be
removed.
• Breathing (inhalation and
exhalation) brings in oxygen
and expels CO2.
• The rate of breathing is
varied according to the
oxygen requirement.
• Both gases are transported
around the body in the
blood; the oxygen mostly
bound to hemoglobin.
• All of us are under constant
attack from pathogens
(disease causing organisms).
• The body has a number of
mechanisms that help to
prevent the entry of
pathogens and limit the
damage they cause if they
do enter the body.
• The skin, the digestive
system and the immune
system are all involved in
limiting damage.
• Food and drink must be
taken in to maintain
the body's energy
supplies.
• Steady levels of energy
(as glucose) is available
to cells through
hormonal regulation of
blood sugar levels.
• Insulin, released by the
endocrine cells of the
pancreas, causes cells
to take up glucose after
a meal.
• Glucagon causes the
release of glucose from
the liver.
• Damage to body tissues
triggers the
inflammatory response.
• There is pain, swelling,
redness, and heat.
Phagocytes and other
white blood cells move
to the injury site.
• The inflammatory
response is started (and
ended) by chemical
signals (e.g. from
histamine and
prostaglandins) released
when tissue is damaged.
• The levels of water and
ions in the body are
maintained mainly by the
kidneys, although the skin
is also important.
•
Osmo-receptors monitor
the fluid and ion levels of
the blood and bring about
the release of regulatory
hormones.
• the kidneys regulate
reabsorption of water and
sodium from blood in
response to levels of the
hormones ADH and
aldosterone.
• The body is constantly
bombarded by stimuli from
the environment. The brain
sorts these stimuli into
those that require a
response and those that do
not. Responses are
coordinated via nervous or
hormonal controls.
• Simple nervous responses
(reflexes) act quickly.
• Hormonal responses take
longer to produce a
response and the response
is more prolonged.
Exit ticket!
• Use an example to explain how negative feedback
helps your body to maintain homeostasis!
•
•
•
•
Homework pg. 233-235
Define:
Feed Back System
Positive Feedback Systems
• Find an example from the text
• Negative Feedback Systems
• Find an example from the text
Positive Feedback Systems
• A system exhibiting positive feedback, in response to stimulus,
acts to increase the magnitude of the stimulus. That is, "A
produces more of B which in turn produces more of A". A vicious
cycle!
• In contrast, a system that responds to a stimulus in a way that
reduces its effect is said to exhibit negative feedback.
Alarm or panic can spread by
positive feedback among a herd
of animals to cause a stampede
• When you get a cut your body
immediately sends a message to
send more blood platelets to the
area
• The body keeps sending the
message until the area is flooded
with platelets
• A clot forms
• The bleeding stops
6
Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback
The
normal
5
heart
pumps
about 5 L
4
of
blood/mi
n
3
Volumeof
blood
(L)
2
• With the withdrawal of 2L
of blood the heart
becomes progressively less
effective in terms of its
pumping effectiveness.
• This leads to less blood
being delivered to tissues
which in turn further
weakens the heart making
it even less able to
effectively pump ... A
vicious cycle or positive
feedback that without
intervention quickly leads
to eternity.
1
Note that with only 1L of
0
0 hours
1 hour
2 hours
3 hours
blood loss the heart is capable
4 hours of returning (via negative
feedback) to normal function.
Exit Ticket
Or
Homework!
On a ½ sheet of paper (will get turned in!
... Make your own story
1. Identify the stimulus (cause)
2. Create a story that demonstrates
positive feedback
3. Create a story that demonstrates
negative feedback system.
Catalyst: What is negative
feedback?
Agenda
Catalyst
Finish feedback loops
Skills Practice with Homeostasis
Lab report return
Objective
 Use an example to define negative and positive feed back
loops
 Practice college readiness standards focused around
experiments that investigate homeostasis.
pg. 233-236
 Define:
 Feed Back System
 Positive Feedback Systems
 Find an example from the text
 Negative Feedback Systems
 Find an example from the text
Catalyst: Think of the lab from last week. Why
would you measure a persons respiratory and
pulse rate before they exercise?
Agenda
Catalyst
Review for test on WEDNESDAY!
Objectives SWBAT
 Explain how the cardiovascular system uses diffusion to help
maintain homeostasis.
Skills worksheet
(3rd period only)
Homework review
 Q1- rates were measured so that a baseline could be
established and a control used to allow for data to be
compared.
 Combine the data onto one graph
 Rate of exercise- day 1 slow exercise, day 2 fast exercise.
 The resting pulse and respiratory rate of the
participants
 Type of machine used for the exercise (tredmill vs.
cycle)

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