Marine and Freshwater Biomes PowerPoint

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Marine Ecosystems
SALT WATER!!!
Life in the Oceans
 Plankton are the base of the
 food chain and the most abundant producers.
Shaped by Abiotic Factors
 TEMPERATURE:
 The temperature of the water goes down as the water
gets deeper.
 Temperature affects the animals that live in the
marine ecosystems.
If the temperature changes too
much it can cause some animals
to die.
Other Important Abiotic Factors
 Sunlight
 Depth of the water
 Amount of salt
Ocean Zones
HOW:
Zones are created by differences in light, temperature and depth.
 Intertidal
 Neritic
 Oceanic
 Benthic
Intertidal Zone
 Where the ocean meets the land.
 Because of the tides, sometimes this area is exposed
to the air.
The Intertidal zone organisms have
adaptations to survive exposure to the
air and from being washed away by
the waves.
Neritic Zone
Neritic Zone
 As you move away from the
shore, the water becomes
deeper and the ocean floor
starts to slope downward.
 The water is warm &
receives a lot of sunlight
 Coral Reefs are located here
Plants and Animals
 In this zone the sea floor
drops sharply.
 Contains the “deep water”
 Adaptations: colorful to
blend into surroundings,
small in size, fast
Oceanic Zone
Plants and Animals
 In this zone the sea
 Seaweed, algae,
floor drops sharply.
 Contains the “deep
water”
plankton
 Krill, fish, sharks,
whales, jellyfish
 Adaptations: fish are
reflective and swim in
schools
The Benthic Zone
 The ocean floor. The deepest parts do not get any
sunlight and are very cold.
 Animals that live in the benthic zone are adapted to
living in the deep, dark water.
 Many animals feed on parts that sink from above.
Some organisms,
get energy form
chemicals released
from thermal vents
in the ocean floor.
Coral Reefs
Found in warm,
shallow areas of the
neritic zone.
Coral reefs are home
to thousands of
species animals and
plants and are the
most biologically
diverse of the water
ecosystems
https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=eIul2O
bvKV8
Coral Reefs are built up
on the “skeletons: of
previous coral.
•
•
•
POLYPS SECRETE CALCIUM TO BUILD THESE “SKELETONS”.
CONTROL HOW MUCH CARBON DIOXIDE IS IN THE
OCEANS! WITHOUT THEM DOING THIS THE AMOUNT OF CO 2
WOULD BE OUT OF CONTROL
COLOR COMES FROM THE ALGAE THAT LIVES IN THEM SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP!
Polyps
Sargasso Sea
 In the middle of the Atlantic Ocean sits floating
“rafts” of algae called sargassum, thus called the
Sargasso Sea.
Organisms
live here to
find shelter
and food as
well as
mates.
Estuaries
 An estuary is where fresh water from rivers and
streams spill into the ocean. It is so rich in nutrients
since salt water and fresh water are mixing, that
large amounts of plankton live here.
Since water is
constantly flowing
the amount of salt
is never steady.
Plants and animals
that call estuaries
home must be
adapted to this!
Animals: crabs, small fish, freshwater dolphins, birds
Plants: grasses, plankton, algae
Polar Ice
 The icy water of the polar ice are rich in nutrients- which
support large numbers of plankton. Many fishes- and krillrely on the plankton as a source of food.
 NO PLANTS
 Animal adaptations: blubber to stay warm in freezing waters,
good eye site, spread weight over ice to avoid falling in
 Food Chain: plankton- krill-Hering and other fish. The fish
are eaten by penguins and seals (seals will also eat penjuins)
which are eaten by polar bears.
Fresh water Ecosystems
Streams and Rivers
The water may flow from
melting ice or snow or even
come from a spring
Each stream that joins a
larger stream is called a
tributary. As tributaries
are added in the stream
grows bigger and bigger
until it becomes a wide
strong steam called a
river.
Streams and Rivers
 Just like all other ecosystems, streams and rivers are
characterized by their abiotic factors.
 Animals have adaptations to live in open water as
well as adaptations to live in fast moving streams
and rivers.
 Plants also must be adapted
to anchor
An important abiotic factor
themselves to in freshwater ecosystems
is how quickly the water
avoid being
moves.
washed away
There are 3
zones in a pond
or lake.
Littoral Zone
Open-water
Zone
Deep-water
Zone
Pond and Lake Ecosystems
Littoral Zone
 The area of water closest to the edge of the lake or
pond where the water is shallow
 Since sunlight reaches the bottom of the littoral
zone, algae and plants can grow here. Floating leaf
plants also grow here.
 Animals: small fish, tadpoles
turtles, zooplankton
Open Water Zone
 The zone that extends from the littoral zone across
the top of the water. It is only as deep as sunlight can
reach.
 Animals like bass, lake trout and other fishes as well
as plankton live here.
Deep-Water Zone
 Beneath the open water zone where no light reaches.
 Catfish, carp, worms, crustaceans, fungi and
bacterial live here. These organisms often feed on
dead organisms that sink from above.
WETLANDS
 A wetland is an area of land that is periodically
underwater or whose soil contains a great deal of
moisture.
 Wet lands are important because they help in flood
control!
During heavy rains or
when the spring snow
melts, wetlands soak up
large amounts of water.
The water in wetlands
also soak up more water
and replenish
underground water
supplies.
Wetland Ecosystems
A treeless wetland ecosystem where plants, like grasses grow
is a MARSH.
Often found in shallow areas along
the shores of lakes, ponds and
rivers. The plants in a marsh
depend on the depth of the water.
Animals:
Birds, small fish, snakes, turtles
Plants:
Grasses, fungi, mosses
Wetland Ecosystems
A wetland ecosystem where trees and vines grow is called a
SWAMP.
Swamps are found in low-lying areas near slow moving rivers. Most
swamps are flooded part of the year, depending on the year.
Animals:
Birds, fish, snakes, turtles, alligators, raccoons,
Plants:
Grasses, fungi, mosses, trees, vines, duck weed

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