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Report
Seminar on
Recent Advances in Formulation
aspects And Manufacturing Of
Monophasic Dosage Forms
By
Shilpa . Allabotharam
M pharm ( І sem )
Department of pharmaceutics
Blue Birds College Of Pharmacy
Kakatiya University
Bheemaram , Warangal.
CONTENTS
Introduction

Liquids meant for internal administration

Liquids meant for external administration

Formulation problems of liquid dosage forms

Manufacturing considerations and equipment

Conclusion

References

INTRODUCTION
Monophasic dosage forms refers to liquid preparations in which
there is only one phase, it is represented by true solution.
Classification
1) Liquids meant for internal administration
Eg: Syrups, Mixtures, Elixirs
2) Liquids meant for external administration

Liquids applied to the skin eg: Lotions, Liniments

Liquids used in mouth eg: Gargles, Mouthwashes , throat paints

Liquids instilled in to body cavities eg: Douches, Eye drops,
Nasal drops
LIQUIDS MEANT FOR INTERNAL
ADMINISTRATION
Syrups
Concentrated or nearly saturated solutions of sucrose in purified
water
1)
Flavoured Syrups
Orange Syrup
Sucrose based syrup
For drugs stable in acidic medium
Cherry Syrup
Sucrose based syrup
For drugs stable in acidic medium
Medicated Syrups
COMMERCIAL
PRODUCT
USE
Amantadine Hcl
Symmetrel Syrup
Respiratory tract infections
Lamivudine
Epiviral Oral Solution
HIV Treatment
Dimerol Solution
Opiod analgesic
SYRUP
Antiviral
Analgesic
Meperidine Hcl
Formulation
1. Vehicles
2. Adjuncts
a) Chemical stabilizers- Glycerine, Sorbital
b) Colouring agents- Amaranth, Tartrazine
C)Flavouring agents
Tinctures- tincture of lemon, ginger
Fruit juices- Wild cherry
Essence- Vanilla, Orange
d) Preservatives- benzoic acid(0.1-0.2%)
e) Artificial sweeteners
Preparation of Syrups
Methods
1. Solution with the aid of heat
2. Solution by agitation without aid of heat
3. Addition of sucrose to a prepared medicated liquid
4. Percolation
The Recent Approach in formulation of Syrup

Preparing palatable tasting cough syrup containing
noscapine
Present invention involves formulation of noscaoine to obtain a
liquid suspension
METHOD:
1. Preparing an aqueous liquid syrup type carrier
solution &buffer to maintain the PH of 7at all times.
2. Mixing alkaloid noscapine with the liquid carrier to
form a fine suspension
3. Aqueous liquid carrier comprises sucrose, sorbitol, a
preservative, CMC , glycerin and suspending agent
ELIXIRS
Clear sweetened hydroalcholic liquids intended for oral
administation
Medicated Elixirs
Butabarbital
Butisol sodium elixir
Sedative
Hypnotic
Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone elixir
Allergies
RA
Nonmedicated Elixirs
Eg: Aromatic elixir, compound benzaldehyde elixir
FORMULATION
Drug

Water

Solvent- Glycerine, Sorbital

Sweetening agents- Sucrose

Colour- Amaranth

Flavouring agents- Orange Syrup, Lemon Syrup

Preservatives- Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben

Chemical stabilizers- Citric acid, EDTA

LIQUIDS FOR EXTERNAL APPLICATION
1) Liquids to be applied to skin
a. Liniments : liquid or semiliquid preparations meant for
application to skin

Alcholic liniments

Oily liniments- Salicylate liniment

Emulsion liniment- Turpentine liniment
b. Lotions : liquid preparation meant for external application with
out friction
eg: Calamine lotion
Lead lotion
2) Liquids to be used in the mouth
a) Gargles- Aqueous solutions used to prevent or to treat throat
infection
eg: potassium chlorate, Phenol gargle.
b) Mouthwashes- aqueous solutions with a pleasant taste and
odour used to make clean , deodorize buccal cavity
Formulation:
Antiseptics-phenol derivatives, Quaternary Ammoniu compounds
Astringents-Zinc Chloride, Zinc Acetate
Deodorizing Agents- Chlorophyllin, Quaternary Ammonium
compounds
Drug Extracts- Tincture of Myrrh
Tincture of Cinchona
Flavours
- Peppermint oil , cinnamon oil
Surfactants - Tween 80
Sweetners
- Saccharine
Colours
- Saffron, Carmine
Vehicle
- Alcohol, water
Prepartion of Aqueous flavoured mouth wash composition
This invention involves preparing visually clear, stable aqueous
citrus flavoured mouth wash which reduces flammability hazards
associated with mixing volatile alcohols
Formulation
Citrusflavor oil - 0.01-0.5%
Emulsifier
- 0.1-2.0%
Alcohol
- 1-25%
Purified water - 60-95%
c) Throat paints
These are viscous liquid preparations used for mouth and throat
infections
Eg: Boro glycerine, Phenol glycerine, Compound Iodine paint
3) Liquids to be instilled in to body cavities
a) Douches- medicated solutions intended for rinsing body
cavity

Cleansingagent -

Antiseptics
-
isotoni sodiumchloride solution
mercuric chloride(0.001%)
potassium permanganate(0.025%)
Lactic acid(0.5-2%)

Astringent
-
Alum(1%)
b) Eardrops
These are solutions of drops that are instilled into the ear with
a dropper.
Contains- water, glycerine, propylene glycol
Used for cleaning the ear, softening the wax, treating mild
infections.
Eg: soda glycerine
c) Nasal drops- aqueous solutions of drops that are instilled
into nose with a dropper
Vehicle- oil or water
Should be isotonic with 0.9%NaCl
Should be isotonic with 0.9%NaCl
Viscosity similar to nasal secretion
1) Isotonicity : Sodium chloride
2) Viscosity : Methylcellulose
CMC
3) PH :
Phosphate buffer
Acetate buffer
Beclomethasone dipropionate nasal drops
Formulation:
Beclomethasone dipropionate anhydrate 0.025-0.25%
Avicel RC
59 1-5%
Glycerol
0.1-6%
Propylene glycol
1.5-1.0%
Polyoxyethylene
0.007%
Purified water
QS
d)Eye drops
These are small volume sterile liquids designed to be
instilled on to the eye ball or with in the conjunctival
sac
Opthalmic formulation comprising a beta blocker and
carbopol
The present invention relates the manufacturing of beta
blocker which improves its I.O.P lowering effect

Formulation:
Timolol
- 0.5%
Timolol maleate
- 0.72gm
Benzylconium chloride-0.72gm
Carbopol
- 2.0gm
Sodium hydroxide- pH 6.5-7.5
water for injection
- 100ml
Formulation problems of liquid
dosage forms
Stability

Sterility

Organoleptic Qualities

Viscosity

Tonicity

Specific gravity

Manufacturing Considerations and
Equipment
Raw materials used in mfg liquid should have some
specifications such as identity, purity, uniformity, and
freedom from excessive microbial contamination
Equipment :
Mixing tanks
Measuring devices
Filtration systems for sterilization
Conclusion
The possibility of simplifying complex process
Leading to new formulations or their optimisation
will depend on the avilability of basic needs related
to ingredient combination, which will be gained by
Investigating ingredient properties
Understanding the effect of ingredients on product
properties
References

Allen, V.L, Ansel, H.C, “Liquid dosage forms”,
Pharmaceutical Dosage forms and Drug delivery
systems(8):336-385(2005).

Aulton,E.M, “Solutions”, The science of Dosage
form Design(2):309-320(2002).

Chenburkar, P.B, Josiln, R.S,“Effect of flavoring oils
on preservative concentrations in oral liquid dosage
forms”, Journal of Pharmaceutical scinces(64):414440(1975).

Gunn’s,C,"Solutions”,Dispensing for
Pharmaceutical students(12):67-89(1987).

Lachmen,L,Lieberman,A.L,"Liquid dosage
forms” (3):457-478(1987).

Moore,C.D,Bell, M,"Solubilisation” ,
Pharmaceutical Journal,171-173.

Remington,G, “Liquid dosage forms” ,The
science and practice of pharmacy,(20):745752(2000)

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