Learning Theories PPT

By: Courtney, Pablo, Kathy,
Jorge, & Katie
 Student-centered-
rather than sitting in a
lecture, students are encouraged to solve
problems set in a real world framework.
 PBL is a constructivist theory.
A PBL approach means that students take a
greater part in their own learning.
The problems are often complex and open-ended,
requiring real thought and inquiry.
The students work together in small groups supported
by a staff facilitator.
The groups enable the students to test and develop
their level of understanding as they discuss their
theories and findings with others.
 Cognitivism
• Jerome Bruner
• Epistemic Motivation
 Pragmatism
• John Dewey
• Principle of Autonomous Learning
originated in the medical field
 Medical school programs found lectures
followed by clinicals to be an ineffective way to
produce future physicians.
 A new strategy of learning was created due to
the new technology and medical discoveries.
 Late 1950’s- Case Western Reserve University
 Late 1960’s- McMaster University in Canada
 From
kindergarten to college, students
who are taught through direct instruction
are found to be bored with their
 Students have trouble seeing that what
they are being taught has relevance to
real-world situations.
PBL can give students a deeper understanding of
the theories and principles behind the material
and can be more engaging than a direct
instruction approach.
 PBL eases transition to life beyond school as it
mirrors how people work in the real world.
Encountering a complex problem
Working in a group/collaboration
Dividing up tasks
Employing communication skills/respect
Promotes critical thinking
Promotes self-directed learning
All aspects of real-life jobs!
“Results indicated high levels of perceived success with problembased learning. On all the identified components of changes in
students learning processes and self-efficacy—self-confidence,
group dynamics, self-motivation, and independence—all students
indicated problem-based learning had positive reactions.
Results indicated all students benefited from problem-based
learning in one way or another.”
Nancy Cerezo, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina Problem-Based Learning in The Middle School: A
Research Case Study of the Perceptions of At-Risk Females, Published by RMLE Online, Research in Middle Level Education, 2004 Volume
27, Number 1.
Research study done by Ahmed Faris in 2008 evaluated if PBL
implementation in a 9th grade science class full of students who
typically show disinterest in learning about science could have a
positive impact.
The conclusion of the research showed that 22 of the 25 students that
participated indicated that they now had a high interest in learning
predetermined set of steps to analyze and
solve a problem description, or 'task'
 A group of students meeting up to 'tackle
the problem' in one or more phases of the
PBL process
 A facilitator, coaching the group's learning
 Self-formulated learning goals, directing
individual study activities
 A rich and accessible learning environment
Phase 1- Pre-discussion as a group
Clarifying text and terms
Analyze problem and possible solutions
Formulate individual objectives
Phase 2- Individual study in order to help
meet group objectives
• Individual work to accomplish set goals and to gain
an understanding that will ensure a complete project
Phase 3- Post-discussion as a group
• The group members bring together their findings,
discuss and come to an agreement on the solution
 Might
be too abstract for concretethinkers.
 Ill-structured learning negates teacher
planning and active instruction.
 Influence of the facilitator on the group
 Negative group dynamics
 As
students are using new technology to
create their solution, they are learning
new ways to implement that new
 As teams construct their presentations,
they can use social networking or
collaborative websites.
Success was determined, rather, by
whether or not the students "owned" the
problem as a real problem for them, as the
problem with which they really were

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