Greek Roots - Los Angeles Unified School District

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GREEK AND LATIN
ROOTS
How to construct and
deconstruct words using
Greek roots
BUILDING BLOCKS OF WORDS
• Phonemes
• Morphemes
• They are the different
sounds in a language
• The smallest unit of meaning
in a language
• Example: p, b, ā, ă
• They can be
• We use them to pronounce
words
• They have no meaning by
themselves
• words: the, table, Juan
• parts of words that
change the meaning: ex, pro-, anti-, -ed, -ing, ism
MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEM
How do we build words? First you need to know the parts.
• Root, base or stem: a morpheme that has meaning all by itself.
• Examples: run, Maria, school, class, compute, chair, desk
• Affix: a morpheme that attaches to a root to change the meaning of the word
• Affixes can be attached to a base in the following manner
• Prefix: attaches at the beginning of a word
• Suffix: attaches at the end of a word
WHY ARE WE STARTING WITH THE
GREEKS AND ROMANS?
• Greek and Latin (language of Rome) are some of the
languages that have contributed greatly to the English
language.
• Knowing many of the basic roots and affixes that come from
the Greeks and Romans will allow you to break words down
to ascertain their meaning.
• We are exposed to Greek and Roman words, images, and
ideas on a daily basis.
Quick history lesson
8th Century B.C. to 146 B.C.
•The Ancient Greek civilization flourished. They
establish the foundations for Western European
culture which are still seen today.
Science, Warfare, Arts (literature, sculpture,
theatre)
Education, Democracy, Philosophy, Athletics
100 B.C.
•Educated people in the western Roman Empire
spoke Latin. Today, this area is: Spain, Italy, France,
and Portugal.
Spanish, Italian, French, and Portuguese are
descended from Latin and they are called
“Romance” (Roman) languages.
43 A.D.
•Roman Emperor Claudius Caesar conquered
Britain.
EXAMPLES OF LOCATIONS
Elysium – A Greek paradise for the dead
Echo – A nymph cursed to repeat words
Elysian Park – Where you find Dodgers Staduim
Echo Park – A neighborhood in Los Angeles
EXAMPLES OF BRANDS
Nike – Goddess of Victory
Nike – Shoe Brand
Pandora – Girl cursed by the gods
Pandora Radio – Popular Internet
App
Ajax – Mighty Greek warrior
Ajax – Mighty cleaner
EVERYDAY WORDS
• Days of the week
• Monday (Lunes) – named after Artemis the moon goddess
• Sunday – named after Apollo the sun god
• Scientific names
• Arachnoids are spiders, named after the girl Arachne who was turned into a
spider
• Pyrotechnics are fireworks, named after Pryo a fire-breathing horse
• Planets in our solar system are named after the Roman gods
• Generic words
• Hero comes from the Greek heros which means demi-god
• Clothes comes from one of the fates, named Clotho
• For fun
• Zodiac signs (Gemini the twins are Castor and Pollux)
HOW WILL WE LEARN THESE
MORPHEMES?
I’m glad you asked.
Denotation/ Dictionary Definition
(Own Words)
Use in Context
Examples
Morpheme
Prefix, Root, Suffix
Visual Representation
Denotation/ Dictionary Definition
(Own Words)
The chief, primary,
or first of something.
It is the major or
most important
thing.
Use in context
The building is archaic.
It was one of the first in
the city.
The archangels are the
most important angels.
Examples
Archangel
Archetype
Archaic
Arch
Visual Representation
Root
!
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