Parts of Speech

Report
Anthis: English 8
PARTS OF SPEECH
PRE-ASSESSMENT
Students will take pre-test.
 Students will grade their own pre-tests.
 Students will reflect on strengths and
weaknesses.

OPTIONS FOR TAKING NOTES
(These are in the order that I recommend.)
1. Notecards
2. Cornell Style Upside-down Notebook
3. Cornell Style with Tabs
WHAT IS A NOUN?
A person, place, thing, or idea.
Who likes really cheesy videos and songs that help you
remember and learn new things? Yeah. Me too.
(NOTES)
NOUNS
common noun: a general name for a
person, place, thing, or idea. Common
nouns are usually not capitalized.
(guitarist, museum, lake, month)
proper noun: the name of a particular
person, place, thing, or idea. A proper
noun is always capitalized.
(Jimi Hendrix, National Paperclip
Museum, Lake Meridian, September)
(NOTES)
NOUNS
concrete noun: names an object that
can be seen, heard, smelled,
touched, or tasted
(book, chicken, apple, flag)
abstract noun: names an idea, quality,
or state of being
(curiosity, pride, hunger, sadness)
(NOTES HONORS EXTENSION)
NOUNS
collective noun: refers to a group of people of things
(audience, crowd, family, collection)
compound noun: made up of two or more nouns
(airplane, parking lot, mother-in-law)
possessive noun: show ownership or relationship
(the singer’s outfit, the singer’s brother)
(PRACTICE TOGETHER)
NOUNS
Make two columns on your paper (common &
proper). Capitalize proper nouns. Circle all the
abstract nouns.
1. The rock and roll hall of fame in cleveland draws
visitors from all over the world.
2. This unusual museum honors musicians for their
creativity.
3. The building was designed by i. m. pei, an architect
famous for his strikingly modern designs.
4. Fans can spend days satisfying their curiosity by
watching videos and listening to recordings for the
beetles.

NOW ON YOUR OWN.
TURN BACK TO CLASSWORK SECTION!!!!
Heading:
Classwork
9-6-13
Nouns Practice

Page 425-426
-Boys do all odd numbers.
-Girls do all even numbers.
 For part B, add circling abstract nouns to the directions.

WHAT IS A PRONOUN?
pronoun: a word that takes the place of a noun.
(NOTES)
PRONOUNS
antecedent: the word that a pronoun represents
personal pronoun: used as substitutes for proper
or common nouns
(I, me, we, us, you, he, him, she, her, it, they, them)
possessive pronoun: show ownership or
relationship
(my, mine, our, ours, your, yours, his, her, hers, its,
their, theirs)
(NOTES)
PRONOUNS
Ray and he wanted music talents to audition
for the play.
Chiyo and I auditioned together. We both got
lead parts.
Sonia delivered her famous monologue.
(PRACTICE)

PRONOUNS
On your paper, write each pronoun and tell whether it is
personal or possessive. Also for each pronoun write the
antecedent if you know it.
1. Bernstein and Robbins convinced the songwriter Stephen
Sondheim and the writer Arthur Laurents to work with them.
2. At first, Laurents intended to follow Shakespeare’s plot in
Romeo and Juliet in every respect, but he later changed his
mind.
3. The ending of West Side Story is slightly different from the
ending of the famous tragedy on which it is based.
4. Like Romeo and Juliet, the modern play has a bitter feud and
an unlikely romance at the center of its plot.
(NOTES – HONORS EXTENSION)
PRONOUNS
reflexive pronoun: formed by adding “self” or “selves” to personal pronoun
forms. It reflects action back upon the
subject.
(Donna prepared herself for a long day.)
intensive pronoun: also formed by adding
“-self” or “selves” but adds emphasis to
a noun or pronoun in the same
sentence.
(The wait itself would take hours.)
(NOTES – HONORS EXTENSION)
PRONOUNS
demonstrative pronoun: point out specific persons,
places, things, or ideas adding element of time or
space.
( this, these, that, those)
indefinite pronoun: does not refer to a specific
person, place, or thing – usually does not have a
antecedent.
(another, anybody, anything, each, either, everybody,
everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no
one, nothing, one, somebody, someone,
something, both, few, many, several, all, any,
more, most, none, some.)
(NOTES – HONORS EXTENSION)
interrogative pronoun: used to ask a
question
(What is your favorite song?)
relative pronoun: used to introduce
clauses
(The student didn’t know what he
had to do.)
PRONOUNS
(PRACTICE – HONORS EXTENSION) PRONOUNS
Write each pronoun, it’s type, and identity its antecedent if
it has one.
1. What is the best way to get good seats for a concert?
2. A long wait in line is an experience that concertgoers
are likely to recognize.
3. Someone gets up before dawn in order to be first in line.
4. The seats that go with the tickets turn out to be real
disappointments, however.
5. A frustrated fan might well ask himself or herself why
this happens.
(EXTRA PRACTICE)
PRONOUNS
Write each pronoun, it’s type, and identity its antecedent if
it has one.
6. The best way to find out is to ask the ticket sellers
themselves.
7. All agree that there is no special advantage to getting to
the box office early.
8. Ticket agencies usually give out lottery numbers to
determine the customers who get to buy tickets first.
9. As a result, people at the end of the line might get
better seats than those at the front.
10. Nothing is more important than luck when people are
trying to get good seats.
ON YOUR OWN (CORE)
In the classwork section of your notebook:
 Do page 439 with this change of directions.
(Boys odd, Girls even)
A. Write down the pronouns from each of the
following sentences. Label either personal or
possessive.
B. Make two columns and label them pronoun
and antecedent.
(Also finish the noun practice from Friday.)
ON YOUR OWN (HONORS)
Do five from each of the following sections:
(page 439: part A) label personal or possessive
(page 440: part A)
(page 443: part A)
(page 445: part B)
WHAT IS A VERB?
3.
A word that
1. Shows action or
2. States existence or
Links subject to another word
EVERY COMPLETE SENTENCE HAS ONE.
Cheesy video? Let’s vote.
(NOTES)
VERBS
Action verb: expresses physical or mental action.
(The band marches onto the field.)
(The audience expects a great performance.)
(NOTES)
VERBS
Linking verb: links the subject of a sentence to a
word in the predicate. There are two groups of
linking verbs: forms of to be, and verbs that
express condition.
(The instruments are safe in the bus.)
(The students seemed bored during the long trip.)
Common linking verbs:
is, am, are, was, were, been, being
look, smell, feel, sound, taste, grow, appear,
become, seem, remain
(NOTES)
VERBS
Auxiliary (helping) verb: are combined with verbs
to form verb phrases.
(The stadium is filled to capacity.)
(We should save a seat for Jeff.)
Common Auxiliary Verbs: be, can, have, may,
might, must, shall, should, will, would
(PRACTICE TOGETHER)
VERBS
(1) Every November, bands from across the country visit
New York City for the big Thanksgiving Day parade. (2.)
Even on cold days when strong winds or light rain
might scare away spectators, the parade is on
schedule. (3) The crowd lines the parade route and
will stay until the last float has driven out of sight. (4)
As bands strut down Broadway, drum majors pound
their drums, members of color guards rhythmically
wave their flags, and baton twirlers toss their batons
into the air and catch them as they twirl downward to
the ground. (5) Meanwhile, giant, colorful cartoon
balloons like Betty Boop, Spiderman, and Bart
Simpson, and other favorite characters are overhead.
TAKE OUT YOUR WORK FROM YESTERDAY
Page 469 (Boys odd, girls even)
Part B: Write down verbs and label action or
linking
 Page 471 (Boys odd, girls even)
Part A: This time every sentence also has an
auxiliary verb. Write down all the verbs and label
action, linking, or auxiliary.

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
Cheesy videos?
(NOTES)
ADJECTIVES
adjective: modifies or limits the meaning of a
noun or pronoun.
What Kind
Which One
How Many
How Much
Famous song
This star
One dollar
Some music
Squeaky noise
That way
Three tenors
More room
Green light
These words
Several years
Less energy
proper adjectives: formed from proper nouns,
capitalized, and often ending in –n, -an, -ian, ese, and –ish.
(Portuguese, American, Egyptian)
HOW DO I KNOW IF I’M LOOKING AT AN
ADJECTIVE OR A PRONOUN???

EASY! An adjective has to be followed by a
noun. A pronoun does not.
 Examples:
 That
car is the only one left? (adjective)
 That is the only one left? (demonstrative pronoun)
 The car is the only one that is left? (relative pronoun)
 Examples:
 Some
examples are tricky. (adjective)
 Some are tricky. (indefinite pronoun)
 Some of them are tricky. (indefinite pronoun)
(NOTES)
ADVERBS
Adverb: modifies a verb, an adjective, or another
adverb.
Modifying verb: We instantly recognized…
Modifying adjective: …grew completely quiet.
Modifying adverb: …rang out quite clearly.
(NOTES)
ADVERBS
More examples:
Where
The student stopped here.
When
Will they be returning soon?
How
Everyone played magnificently.
To what extent
The auditorium was completely full.
Adverbs formed by adding –ly:
Frequent + ly = frequently extreme + ly = extremely
True + ly = truly
possible + ly = possibly
Intensifiers: an adverb that defines a degree.
extremely, most, just, more, nearly, quite, so, very, only,
really, too, somewhat,…
(PRACTICE)
ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS
Write each adjective and adverb in these sentences,
along with the word it modifies. Some have been
identified for you.
1. The word karaoke means “empty orchestra” in
Japanese.
2. Beethoven tirelessly devoted himself to his music.
3. Karaoke became a major trend in Japan and around
the world.
4. Years ago, American television featured shows in which
people sang with a chorus in the background.
5. The composer was terribly shocked to realize that he
was losing his hearing when he was in his late
twenties.

(PRACTICE)
ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS
Write each adjective and adverb in these
sentences, along with the word it modifies.
Some have been identified for you.
1. His condition gradually worsened.
2. The machine is a Japanese invention.
3. He often worked late.
4. The concept is not a new one, however. .
5. In fact, his nocturnal piano playing made him
very unpopular with his more conventional
neighbors.

ON YOUR OWN
English Notebooks: (boys odd, girls even)
Page 506: Part A
Page 510: Part A
Page 512: Part A

PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND
INTERJECTIONS
(NOTES)
PREPOSITIONS
preposition: shows relationship between a noun
or pronoun and another word in a sentence.
The sound of a jazz band…
Music was coming from a radio.
Commonly used prepositions:
about, across, along, at, before, below, beside,
by, from, in, like, near, of, on, out, over, since, to
under, up, upon, with, within, without…
(NOTES)
PREPOSITIONS
compound preposition: prepositions that consist
of more than one word
Louis Armstrong sang in addition to
playing the trumpet.
Commonly used compound prepositions:
according to, aside from, because of, in place
of, in addition to, instead of, out of, prior to…
(NOTES)
PREPOSITIONS
prepositional phrase: consists of a preposition
and its object, and any modifiers of the object.
object of preposition: the noun of pronoun that
follows a preposition.
Many early jazz bands played in New Orleans.
The sounds came from a radio.
Musicians traveled to other large cities.
During the 1920s, jazz swept the country.
(PRACTICE)

PREPOSITIONS
For each sentence below, write each preposition.
1. Jazz is a modern form of music.
2. Many musical styles contributed to its birth.
3. Among these influences are gospel and the blues.
4. Rhythms from West Africa are also part of jazz’s
heritage. (2)
5. In New Orleans, jazz was often played at funerals.
(2)
6. During the early years of the 20th century, jazz
became popular as entertainment. (3)
(NOTES)
CONJUNCTIONS / INTERJECTIONS
conjunctions: connects words or groups of words
coordinating: (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet)
correlative: word pairs (both…and, either… or )
interjections: word or phrase used to express
emotion.
(Yikes! Our project is due tomorrow.)
(Well, where should we start?)
(PRACTICE)
CONJUNCTIONS / INTERJECTIONS
Identify and label the conjunctions and/or interjections.
1. Wow! I think that’s perfect and I’m beginning to
understand it.
2. No way! Either an all-video station would not
attract enough viewers, or the producers would
never fill the airtime.
3. These predictions seemed reasonable, but the
skeptics turned out to be wrong.
4. Both singers and bands began to make more and
more videos.
5. Um, I forgot all about that. Oops.
ON YOUR OWN
Page 533
Parts A & B
 Page 541
Part B

(EXTRA PRACTICE)
(1) I soon found out why old Chong had retired from
teaching piano. (2) He was deaf. (3) “Like Beethoven!”
he shouted to me. (4)“We’re both listening only in our
head!” (5) And he would start to conduct his frantic
silent sonatas.
(6) Our lessons went like this. (7) He would open the
book and point to different things, explaining their
purpose:“Key! Treble! Bass! No sharps or flats! (8) So
this is C major! (9) Listen now and play after me!”
(10) And then he would play the C scale a few times, a
simple chord, and then, as if inspired by an old,
unreachable itch, he gradually added more notes . . .
and a pounding bass until the music was really
something quite grand.
(EXTRA PRACTICE)










1. What is the proper noun in sentence 1?
2. Is the verb in sentence 2 an action verb or a
linking verb?
3. What are the personal pronouns in sentence 3?
4. Is the noun in sentence 4 common or proper?
5. What are the adjectives in sentence 5?
6. What kind of pronoun is our in sentence 6?
7. What kind of verb is would in sentence 7?
8. Is this in sentence 8 a demonstrative or an
interrogative pronoun?
9. What are the verbs in sentence 9?
10. What are the adjectives in sentence 10?
(EXTRA PRACTICE)
(Identify underlined words’ part of speech.)
A newspaper column from 1945 relates an
amusing anecdote about Albert Einstein, the great
mathematician and physicist. Einstein, (4)
according to the account, played the violin as a
hobby. One day, he invited Arthur Schnabel, a
famous concert pianist, to join him in some
informal music-making. While the two were playing
a technically difficult Mozart sonata, Schnabel
became quite frustrated. Finally, he could (8)
neither concentrate nor control himself. He
stopped playing, banged angrily on the keyboard,
and exclaimed: “No, no, Albert. For heaven’s sake,
can’t you count? One, two, three, four. . . .”

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