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APUSH Review: The Final
Exam Review, 2014
Edition Part II
(Hopefully) Everything You Need To Know To Succeed On
May 14, 2014
Reconstruction

What is it?

Presidential vs. Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction:

13th Amendment:

14th Amendment:

15th Amendment:
◦ Rebuilding the nation after the Civil War
◦ Presidential was much more lenient (10% loyalty oaths, adoption of
13th amendment)
◦ Radical was harsh on the South – divided into 5 zones
◦ Made slavery illegal
◦ Granted citizenship to blacks
◦ Equal protection for citizens
◦ Former Confederate officers could not hold state or federal office
◦ Granted suffrage for blacks
 South found loopholes: poll taxes, literacy tests, etc.

Scalawags:

Carpetbaggers:

Force Acts:
◦ Southerners that favored Reconstruction
◦ Northerners that moved South during Reconstruction
◦ Passed in response to KKK, Federal troops used to quell KKK
Reconstruction

Black Codes:
◦ Regulated affairs of African Americans; conditions
similar to slavery

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson:
◦ Disliked by Radical Republicans
◦ Impeached (not removed) for violating the Tenure of
Office Act

What ended Reconstruction?
◦ Compromise of 1877
◦ The compromise settled the disputed 1876 election
 Hayes (Republican) became President
 ENDED MILITARY RULE IN THE SOUTH!
 Southerner appointed to cabinet
The Gilded Age

What is it?

Business during the Gilded Age:
◦ Term coined by Mark Twain
◦ Although things looked great on the surface, there were many societal
issues
◦ Huge gap between the rich and poor
◦ Growth of monopolies
 Carnegie Steel, Rockefeller Oil, etc.
◦ Vertical integration: owning all aspects of a business from beginning to end
– Carnegie
◦ Horizontal integration: owning all businesses in an industry – monopoly
(later illegal)

How did the rich justify their wealth?

President Grant’s Scandals:

Boss Tweed:

Pendleton Act (1883) – passed in response to the assassination of
James Garfield. Required a civil service exam for government jobs
◦ Social Darwinism
◦ The Gospel of Wealth – Andrew Carnegie
◦ Credit Mobilier and Whiskey Ring
◦ Leader of the Tammany Hall (Democratic) political machine
◦ Stole over $200 million
◦ Later caught in part due to Thomas Nast’s political cartoons
The Gilded Age Continued

Unions during the Gilded Age:
◦ Knights of Labor – allowed skilled AND unskilled
◦ AFL – allowed skilled workers only
 Samuel Gompers – 8 hour work day, collective bargaining
◦ Immigrants were hard to unionize (language barrier), disliked by
workers, liked by employers
 Often hired as strike breakers or “scabs”

Strikes during the Gilded Age:
◦ When in doubt, strikes occurred because of wage cuts
 Government almost always sided with the owners
◦ Great RR Strike – 1877, Homestead – 1892, and Pullman - 1894
◦ Haymarket Square Riot – 1886:
 Turned violent, led to the demise of the Knights of Labor

Important laws during the Gilded Age:
◦ Interstate Commerce Act (1887):
 Created the ICC, meant to regulate RR industry
 Was an attempt to appease farmers
 Was not very effective early on
◦ Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890):
 Purpose was to break up monopolies
 In practice, this was used to break up unions
The West

Westward expansion:
◦ Dates back to LA Purchase (1803)
◦ Government helped encourage westward expansion
 Homestead Act (1862) – provided 162 acres to settlers
 Transcontinental RR – Completed in 1869, government helped subsidize
through loans and free land

As Americans moved further west, they encroached on
Native American land
◦ Buffalo almost became extinct
◦ A Century of Dishonor – Helen Hunt Jackson
 Wrote about the plight of Natives at the hands of the US government
◦ Dawes Act (1887):
 Meant to assimilate or “Americanize” Native Americans
◦ Children sent to boarding schools, Natives converted to Christianity
◦ Ghost Dance:
 Native American ritual envisioned the return of Buffalo and the removal of
whites
 Led to…..
◦ Wounded Knee Massacre – 100s of Natives were killed by US Army

1890 Census:
◦ Frontier line no longer existed:
 Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis argued that the frontier helped
promote an American identity
 “Safety-valve” no longer existed

The Grange:

Populist Party
Populism
◦ Provided social and economic opportunities for FARMERS
◦ Sought to end monopolies in RR, wanted government ownership of businesses
◦ Absorbed some ideas from farmers
◦ Omaha Platform (written by Ignatius Donnelly)
 Free and unlimited coinage of silver at ratio of 16:1; a graduated income-tax
(redistribute wealth); Gov’t ownership of the telephone and telegraph, and railroads;
Initiative, referendum and recall; Postal savings banks (safe repository run by gov’t);
Direct election of senators

Panic of 1893 Causes:

Results:

Coxey’s Army:

Free Silver:

William Jennings Bryan

Cross of Gold
◦ Overspeculation, Stock-market crash, Overproduction
◦ Gov’t repeals Sherman Silver Act
◦ Advocated a public works program, marched a group of unemployed individuals to
Washington
◦ Broken up by police
◦ Having silver back the value of the dollar at a ratio of 16:1
◦ Would favor famers and debtors – easier to pay off debt
◦ Won Democratic nomination in 1896; great orator; Challenged McKinley
◦ "We will answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them: ‘You shall not
press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind
upon a cross of gold.”
The Progressive Era

Who were Progressives?

Progressives also carried ideas over from the Populist Era (farmers)

Muckrakers:

Famous Journalists?
◦ Women, members of the Middle-Class, and people that lived in urban areas
◦ Wanted to find solutions to the problems of society
◦ Direct election of senators, railroad regulation, secret ballot, income tax
◦ Journalists that wanted to expose scandal, corruption, and societal ills
◦ Mass circulation of newspapers
◦ Upton Sinclair – The Jungle
 Helped lead to the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act
◦ Jacob Riis – How the Other Half Lives
 Photographs that exposed poor living conditions for immigrants in NYC
◦ Lincoln Steffens – The Shame of Cities
 Exposed corruption between city (municipal) government and businesses
◦ Ida Tarbell:
 Wrote about the harsh treatment of other businesses by Standard Oil Company
◦ Frank Norris – The Octopus
 Wrote about Railroad corruption

2 important Progressives to know:
◦ Robert La Follette:
 Governor of Wisconsin
 Direct primary, initiative, referendum, and recall (state reforms)
◦ Jane Addams:
 Founder of the Hull House in Chicago
 Aided women, children, and immigrants
The Progressive Era Continued

African Americans were left out of government reforms during the
Progressive Era
◦ W.E.B. Du Bois:
 Demanded immediate end to segregation
 Helped form the NAACP
◦ Ida B. Wells-Barnett:
 Advocated an end to lynching

Progressive Amendments:
◦ 16th: Graduated Income Tax
◦ 17th: Direct Election of Senators
 Senators previously were elected by state legislatures
◦ 18th: Prohibition
 Influenced by WCTU
◦ 19th: Women’s Suffrage
 Alice Paul

Social Gospel:

Roosevelt:

Wilson:

Important Progressive Acts:
◦ Protestant Church movement to help poor
◦ Square Deal - Conservation, regulated trusts – good v. bad, consumer protection
◦ Helped settle the Anthracite Coal Mine labor dispute
◦ New Freedom – eliminating all trusts, lowering tariffs (Underwood), Federal Reserve
Act
◦ Hepburn – regulated RR industry
◦ Clayton Antitrust Act – exempted unions from prosecution
US Imperialism – WWI

Spanish American War:
◦ Causes:
 Alfred T. Mahan
◦ Author of “Influence of Sea Power Upon History”
 Yellow Journalism
◦ Exaggeration of stories to sell newspapers
◦ Hearst and Pulitzer
 USS Maine
◦ US ship stationed in Cuba, mysteriously blew up
 De Lome Letter
◦ Written by a Spanish minister
◦ Trash talked McKinley
 Yellow Journalism
 American public demanded war

Why was the US imperializing?

Anti-Imperialist League

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine:

Dollar Diplomacy:
◦ Need for raw materials, $ for businesses
◦ Mark Twain, Presidents of Harvard and Stanford, Samuel Gompers, and Carnegie
◦ Didn’t Filipinos deserve “Consent of the governed?”
◦ US could intervene in the affairs in Latin America
◦ US becomes a police power
◦ US businesses invest in Latin America
◦ Concerned with economic interests
US Imperialism – WWI

World War I:
◦ Causes:
 Unrestricted submarine warfare
 Zimmermann Note

Home front during WWI:
◦ How was the war paid?
 Income taxes – 16th amendment, liberty bonds
◦ Committee on Public Information:
 George Creel
 Purpose was to gain support for the war – “4 minute
men”

Woodrow Wilson:
◦ 14 Points, League of Nations
◦ Promoted self-determination
◦ US never joined the League – Henry Cabot Lodge
The “Roaring” 20s

Politics
◦ Warren G. Harding – “Return to Normalcy”
 Teapot Dome Scandal
◦ Calvin Coolidge
 Laissez-faire
◦ Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon:
 Tax cuts for the wealthy, similar to Reagan in 1980s

Nativism:
◦ Emergency Quota Act (1921)
 Limited immigration quota to 3% of a country’s population in 1910
◦ National Origins Act (1924)
 Limited immigration quota to 2% of a country’s population in 1890
◦ Both ended unrestricted immigration
◦ KKK – rose during 1920s – Birth Of A Nation
◦ Sacco and Vanzetti – immigrants convicted of murder, sentenced to death

Women in the 1920s:

Harlem Renaissance:
◦ Flappers
◦ Women’s suffrage (19th) Amendment – 1920
◦ Margaret Sanger – advocated birth control
◦ Celebration of African American culture and music
◦ KNOW poets Claude Mckay and Langston Hughes
The Great Depression and New Deal

President Hoover’s response to Depression:
◦ Little government action, relied on volunteerism
◦ Urged businesses to keep wages and production at status quo

FDR’s “Alphabet Soup Program”
◦ CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps
 Put young men (18 – 24) to work
 Environmental work: planting trees, building parks, etc.
◦ TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority
 Building of dams helped provide jobs and hydroelectric power
◦ AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Act
 Paid farmers NOT to grow crops, Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in Butler v. US
◦ NIRA: National Industrial Recovery Act
 Allowed president to set codes for industries (prices, working hours, etc.)
 Section 7a allowed unions to collectively bargain, declared unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US

Court Packing Plan:
◦ For every judge over 70 that does not retire, he could appoint a new one, would allow him
to appoint up to six new judges

Key people associated with the Great Depression:
◦ Huey Long:
 Proposed to provide $5,000 to every family by taxing wealthy
◦ Dr. Francis Townsend:
 Favored giving $200 per month to senior citizens
◦ John Maynard Keynes:
 Economist that influenced FDR, government should run a deficit to improve economy









WWII
Neutrality Acts (1935 – 1937):
◦ US could not trade with warring (belligerent) countries
 Did not matter who was the aggressor or who was the victim
◦ US citizens could not travel on ships from warring nations
Neutrality Act of 1939:
◦ US could sell weapons to democracies via “cash and carry”
Isolationists vs. Interventionists
◦ Committee to Defend America – Interventionists
◦ America First Committee – Isolationists (Charles Lindbergh)
Lend-Lease Act (1941):
◦ US could lend crucial supplies to countries the president deems vital
Why did Truman use the atomic bomb?
◦ To save American lives!
Women in WWII
◦ “Rosie the Riveter” – Films, magazines, etc.
 Millions of women took jobs in factories, Incomes increased
Japanese Americans
◦ Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Internment Camps
◦ 100,000+ Japanese-Americans on West coast were moved to camps, Upheld in Korematsu
v. US
Mexican-Americans
◦ Increase in workers from Mexico through the Bracero Program
◦ Zoot-Suit Riots: LA, CA
 Conflicts between sailors and marines and Mexican-Americans
African Americans:
◦ Double V Campaign – Victory abroad over fascism, victory at home over racism
The Cold War

George Kennan
◦ Author of the “Long Telegram”
◦ What is he known for?
 Father of ***Containment*** – to keep Communism from spreading
◦ Impact of Kennan?
 Helped end the US policy of isolation

Truman Doctrine:

Marshall Plan:

“Fall” of China (1949):

2nd Red Scare:
◦ Truman requested, and received, $400 million for military and economic aid to Greece
and Turkey
◦ Policy that the US would spend billions of dollars over next several years to improve
European economic recovery
◦ Truman gets blamed for China turning Communist
◦ HUAC (created in 1945)
 House Committee on Un-American Activities
◦ Prominent member was Richard Nixon – NOT JOSEPH McCarthy!
 Alger Hiss:
◦ Accused of sharing 65 classified documents
 “Hollywood Ten”
◦ 10 screenwriters that refused to testify before HUAC; sentenced to jail
◦ McCarthyism
 Joseph McCarthy (R – Wisconsin), accused state department officials of being communists
 Downfall happened when he attacked the army
◦ Rosenbergs
 Husband and wife convicted of giving a-bomb secrets to the Soviets
The Cold War Cont.

Eisenhower’s Administration:
◦ Secretary of State – John Foster Dulles
 Massive Retaliation:
◦ Brinkmanship
◦ In contrast, JFK’s “Flexible Response” focused more on covert action
◦ Sputnik – launched by USSR
 Increase in spending on science and education in US
◦ U2 Spy plane
 US plane shot down by Soviets
 Increased tensions

Foreign Issues:
◦ Bay of Pigs Invasion:
 April, 1961 the invasion takes place
◦ US does not directly get involved
◦ The invasion is a HUGE failure
 Impact:
◦ Cuba and USSR worry about future invasions
◦ Cuban Missile Crisis:
 On October 14, US surveillance discover missiles with nuclear capabilities in
Cuba
◦ Could destroy most of the US
 JFK quarantined Cuba
◦ Eventually, the Soviet Union withdrew missiles
◦ US promised not to attack Cuba
◦ US would withdraw missiles from Turkey
Civil Rights (1940s – 1960s)

1940s:
◦ Executive Order 9981 (1948):
 Desegregated the US military
◦ A. Phillip Randolph:
 Civil Rights advocate
 Led to FDR banning segregation in defense industries
1950s

Brown v. Board:

Little Rock Nine:

Montgomery Bus Boycott:
◦ Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson
◦ States must desegregate schools with “all deliberate
speed”
◦ Eisenhower sent federal troops to allow the students
attend Little Rock High School
◦ Martin Luther King, Jr. – 26 years old
 Drew on ideas from Jesus, Thoreau, and Gandhi
◦ 1 year after Rosa Parks was arrested, Montgomery busses
were desegregated
Civil Rights (1940s – 1960s)


1960s
Greensboro, North Carolina Sit-in
Martin Luther King focused on Birmingham
◦ King and others were arrested for protesting
◦ “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”
 Drew on Thoreau’s and Gandhi’s ideas of civil disobedience
 “an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who
willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of
the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect
for law.”

Alabama and Ole Miss:

Civil Rights Act of 1964:

Voting Rights Act of 1965:

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Black Panthers (1966):
◦ Attempts to keep the colleges from desegregating
◦ Guaranteed equal access to public accommodations
◦ Eliminated literacy tests for voting
◦ The number of African Americans registered to vote in the South
skyrocketed
◦ Helped register blacks to vote in Mississippi (5% were registered in 1964)
◦ Later, under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael, SNCC focused on black
power
◦ Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
◦ Advocated the arming of blacks against white police
The 1950s

***Interstate Highway Act***

Suburbs:

Middle-Class Families:

Rise in consumerism
◦
◦
◦
◦
Largest public works project to date
Created 42,000 miles of highways
Could be used for evacuation in case of nuclear war
Helped spur the growth of…..
◦ Levittown:
 Cookie-cutter houses in suburban Long Island, duplicated in many
other cities
◦ “White Flight”
 Many White families moved to the suburbs
 Blacks (especially from the South, moved to cities)
◦ Many married women did not work
 Seen in television shows – “Leave it to Beaver”
◦ “Cult of domesticity”
 Women were expected to stay home, raise a family
◦ Consumer credit increased drastically in the 1950s
 Credit cards, store cards
◦ Car manufacturers produced newer, more stylish cars
◦ New appliances included: dishwashers, garbage disposals, and TVs
The 1960s

JFK’s New Frontier:

LBJ’s Great Society:

Election of 1968:

2 important books:
◦ Focused on urban renewal
◦ Focus on civil rights and elimination of Poverty
◦ Vietnam and Great Society competed for $
◦ Nixon (R), Humphrey (D), Wallace (I)
◦ Wallace siphoned votes from Humphrey in the South, Nixon became
president
◦ Silent Spring:
 Rachel Carson, depicted the harmful effects of pesticides on the environment
◦ The Feminine Mystique:
 Betty Friedan - Brought attention to challenges that women faced; challenged “Cult
of Domesticity”
 Helped increase enrollment in the Women’s Rights Movement of the 1960s

1968: The year of “shocks”

1969:
◦ Assassinations of RFK and MLK
◦ Tet Offensive
◦ Moon landing
◦ Woodstock – “hippy” or counterculture movements
◦ Stonewall riots – associated with Gay Rights Movement
The Vietnam War


1954: Fall of Dien Bien Phu:
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – 1964:
◦ Background info:
 US alleged that American ships were attacked by North Vietnam, different accounts of
what happened
◦ What did the resolution do?
 Allowed Johnson to do anything necessary to prevent future attacks
◦ Impact of the resolution?
 Johnson escalates US involvement in Vietnam

Tet Offensive (1968)
◦ N. Vietnam launched a surprise attack, public opinion on the war decreased and protests
increased

Invasion of Cambodia (1970)
◦ Nixon’s authorized the bombing of neighboring Cambodia
◦ Leads to……

Kent State protests:
◦ Students protested the Cambodia bombings
◦ 4 students killed by the National Guard in the process
◦ RESULT OF THE BOMBING OF CAMBODIA!

Vietnamization:
 Nixon’s plan to gradually withdraw US troops from Vietnam and replace with trained
South Vietnamese troops.

War Powers Act (1973)
◦ Essentially overturned “Gulf of Tonkin” Resolution
◦ Limited the President’s involvement in wars
 Must inform Congress before war actions are taken

Effects:
◦ Money that could have been used on the Great Society went to Vietnam instead
◦ High inflation
The Warren Court
◦ Led by Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953 – 1969)
◦ Decisions affected rights of criminals and the accused,
religion, civil rights, and women
 Mapp v. Ohio (search warrants)
 Gideon v. Wainwright (right to lawyer, even if you can’t
afford one)
 Escobedo v. Illinois (Right to lawyer from time of arrest)
 Miranda v. Arizona (Right to remain silent)
 Engel v. Vitale (School sanctioned prayer is
unconstitutional)
 Griswold v. Connecticut (Birth control is legal)
 Tinker v. DesMoines (Free speech is fine in school)

Nixon, upset with the court’s decisions, appointed
judges he felt would “strictly” interpret the Constitution
◦ Appointed Warren Burger as new Chief Justice
◦ Roe v. Wade (1973) – legalized abortion
◦ Bakke v. Board of Regents - Giving preferential treatment
based solely on race was not allowed…
The 1970s – 1980s

Nixon’s Administration:
◦ “Silent Majority”:
 Nixon’s belief that most people were supportive of the Vietnam War, they just did
not protest
◦ Henry Kissinger:
 Nixon’s National Security Adviser and Secretary of State
◦ Cambodia -> Kent State

Pentagon Papers (1971):

Nixon’s visit to China (February, 1972):

Détente
◦ Detailed the US’ involvement in Vietnam
◦ Showed deceit by JFK and LBJ administrations regarding US involvement in
Vietnam
◦ US relations with China improved
◦ Soviet Union was concerned over US-Chinese relationship
◦ Leads to……
◦ Easing of Cold War Tensions
◦ SALT (1972)
 Agreement to limit nuclear weapons

Watergate Complex:
◦ June 17, 1972:
 5 men broke into Democratic headquarters in Watergate
◦ Eventually, Nixon resigns due to his part in the cover up
The 1970s – 1980s

Ford pardons Nixon:
 Many Americans were upset, some believed there was a
“deal”
 Hurt Ford’s re-election chances in 1976

Carter’s Administration:
◦ “Washington Outsider”
◦ Iran Hostage Crisis
◦ Camp David Accords – peace agreement between
Israel and Egypt
The 1970s – 1980s

Reagan’s Administration (1981 – 1989):
◦ Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) (Star Wars)
 Reagan’s nuclear defense plan
 Space stations could use lasers to defend against nuclear attacks
◦ Supply-side economics (Reaganomics)
 Tax cuts for the wealthy; in theory, the rich would use this money
to invest and spend money to improve the economy
 Very similar to Andrew Mellon’s tax policy from the 1920s
◦ Increased defense spending
◦ Iran-Contra Affair
 American hostages were held in Lebanon
 Contras were rebels fighting the Sandinistas
1.
2.
3.

The Reagan administration sold weapons to Iran
That money was sent to the Contras
Iran would then help free the hostages
George H.W. Bush: (1989 – 1993):
◦ August 2, 1990 – Saddam Hussein and Iraq invaded Kuwait
◦ US and UN allies used advanced technology to crush Iraq
◦ Saddam withdrew from Kuwait
 Scorched-earth policy
◦ “By God, we’ve licked the Vietnam syndrome once and for all”
1990s

Election of 1992:
◦ George H. W. Bush (R), Bill Clinton (D), and Ross Perot
(Independent)
“Read my
◦ “It’s the economy, stupid”
lips, NO
◦ Clinton won, DemocratsNEW
controlled Congress
 Clinton’s Administration (1993 – 2001):
TAXES.”
 Bad economy hurt Bush’s reelection bid
◦ Economic Issues:
 Internet businesses boomed - Stock market increased
 The 1990s economy was unprecedented
◦ North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA):
 1993 – eliminated tariffs between Canada, US, and Mexico
 Many argued it helped promote outsourcing

Baby Boom Generation began to retire:
◦ Led to issues with Social Security
◦ “Graying” of America
Miscellaneous Information

Booker T. Washington:

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW):
◦ Favored economic opportunities, vocational training
◦ Atlanta Compromise - “In all things that are purely social we can
be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things
essential to mutual progress.”
◦ Labor union that lost influence after WWI
◦ Nicknamed “I won’t work”
African Americans began to vote overwhelmingly for
Democrats during the Great Depression
 Most African Americans were sharecroppers after the
Civil War
 Great Migrations:

◦ Mass movement of African Americans to the North after world
wars

Bonus Army:

Birth of A Nation: (1915)
◦ WWI vets that demanded an early bonus in 1932; broken up by
Hoover
◦ Full-length film that glorified the KKK
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