Biotechnology webinar pres uploadable

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Triple Science Network
Biotechnology
What is Biotechnology?
Biotechnology uses biological processes to develop
technologies and products that help improve our lives
and the health of our planet.
Biotechnology and Food Production
Age old technologies:
Biotechnology and Food Production
Newer technologies:
• Production of “vegetarian cheese” using genetically modified microorganisms to produce chymosin (rennet).
• Purple tomatoes – genetically modified to contain an antioxidant
thought to help prevent cancer.
• Use of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens to produce
herbicide resistant crops.
• Genetically modifying crops using the Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium
to produce insect-resistance.
• Production of a high protein food source from fungi – Mycoprotein.
Biotechnology
General
Use of microorganisms in food
production
AQA
Unit 1
Production of Mycoprotein (Quorn) using
the fungus Fusarium sp.
Edexcel
Fermenters and factors affecting growth rates.
Aseptic techniques
Production of Mycoprotein (Quorn) using the fungus
Fusarium sp.
Use of bacteria in the production of yogurt
Unit 2
Production of chymosin by genetically modified microorganisms; used to produce vegetarian cheese.
Production of invertase by a yeast; used in manufacture
of sweets
Use of immobilised lactase to produce lactase free milk
Use of enzymes in food production.
Unit 1
Production of monoclonal antibodies and their use in
pregnancy testing and diagnosis of blood clots and
cancer
Monoclonal antibodies for targeted treatment of cancer
cells
Use of plant chemicals to treat human diseases or
relieve symptoms
Recombinant DNA technology to produce human
insulin
Enzyme technology
Development of new
vaccines to combat
infectious diseases
Tests to diagnose and
detect disease
Treatment of disease
Agricultural
biotechnology and GM
crops - to increase
yields/reduce use of
pesticides/reduce
environmental impact
Biofuels and biogas
Cleaning products
Waste management
Unit 1
Evaluate the use of biogas generators
Crops grown for biofuels - cause of
deforestation.
How biofuels and biogas are produced.
Use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create transgenic
plants
Use of insect resistant genes from Bacillus thuringiensis
in crop plants.
Costs/benefits of GM crops in developed/developing
countries - incl. flavanoids in the purple tomato.
advantages/disadvantages of replacing fossil fuels with
biofuels.
enzymes used in washing powders
GCSE Biology unit 3
Mycoprotein
Which pairs of pictures go together and why? What is
the connection between all 4 pictures?
Which pairs of pictures go together and why? What is
the connection between all 4 pictures?
Fusarium venenatum is a type of fungus with a
high protein content. It is grown in a fermentor
to produce a food source – mycoprotein – also
known as Quorn.
Fusarium sporotrichoides is a type of fungal
pathogen which was used to produce a
biological weapon. The Soviets were accused of
using this weapon, dubbed “yellow rain”, to
cause over 6,000 deaths in Laos, Kampuchea,
and Afghanistan between 1975 and 1981.
What’s in a name?
Recap of Scientific Classification
K
P
C
O
F
G
S
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Fungi
Ascomycota
Sordariomycetes
Hypocreales
Nectriaceae
Fusarium
F. venenetum
F. sporotrichoides
Food source!
Biological weapon!
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely found in soil and in association with
plants. Most species are harmless. Some species produce mycotoxins in cereal crops that
can affect human and animal health if they enter the food chain.
We only need to know about
Fusarium venenatum and its role in
producing mycoprotein!
Alternative starter activity
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYGrymywG5c
Teaching activities:
Research activity
1) What is mycoprotein?
2) What are the health benefits of eating mycoprotein?
3) What other benefits of mycoprotein are there?
4) How is mycoprotein produced?
Good discussion
topic!
Nutrients such as
potassium and magnesium
are added
___
Aerobic
conditions
Temperature, pH, nutrient
and O2 levels are
continuously monitored
The fermenter is
sterilised and filled
with a water and
glucose solution.
Then a batch of the
fungi Fusarium is
introduced
The fungi and the nutrients
combine to form
mycoprotein solids which are
removed continuously from
the fermenter
Air lift or 'loop' fermenter
Fermenter is
40 m high
continuously
runs for five
to six weeks
at a time.
The
fermenter
then goes
through a
sterilization
process for
two weeks
The largest
fermenter in
the world!
200’ high and 25’ in diameter. The
photo above shows the fermenter being
transported on vehicles with tank
treads in 1978.
The fermenter being raised into
position at the ICI factory in
Billingham.
• 1,500m3 fermenter
• Animal Feed (Pruteen)
• Dismantled in 1988
Drug manufacture – Biologics, including
monoclonal antibodies.
Fermenter at KSRC
Mycoprotein
flow chart
activity
1st 7 statements
cover growth in
the fermenter
Mycoprotein is made in 40 metre high fermenters
Once the organism starts to grow, a continuous feed of nutrients such as
potassium, magnesium and phosphate are added to the solution.
Next, a batch of Fusarium venenatum, the fungi that is the base for Mycoprotein,
is introduced.
The fungi uses the nutrients to grow and forms Mycoprotein solids, which are
removed continuously from the fermenter after an average ‘residence time’ of
five to six hours.
Each fermenter is filled with a water and glucose solution.
The pH balance, temperature, nutrient concentration and oxygen are all
constantly adjusted to reach the optimum growth rate.
Each fermenter is continuously run for five to six weeks at a time. The fermenter
then goes through a sterilization process of two weeks.
1st 7 statements
cover growth in
the fermenter
Mycoprotein is made in 40 metre high fermenters
Each fermenter is filled with a water and glucose solution.
Next, a batch of Fusarium venenatum, the fungi that is the base for Mycoprotein,
is introduced.
Each fermenter is continuously run for five to six weeks at a time. The fermenter
then goes through a sterilization process of two weeks.
Once the organism starts to grow, a continuous feed of nutrients such as
potassium, magnesium and phosphate are added to the solution.
The pH balance, temperature, nutrient concentration and oxygen are all
constantly adjusted to reach the optimum growth rate.
The fungi uses the nutrients to grow and forms Mycoprotein solids, which are
removed continuously from the fermenter after an average ‘residence time’ of
five to six hours.
The next 6 statements cover processing after removal from the fermenter
The product is then frozen. This is a very important part of the process, as the ice
crystals help to push the fibres together, creating bundles that give Mycoprotein its
meat-like texture.
Next, the Mycoprotein is mixed with a little free range egg and seasoning, to help bind
the mix.
The pieces and mince are then sold under the Quorn™ brand and in a wide range of
other products.
It is then steam cooked for about 30 minutes and then chilled, before it is minced or
chopped into pieces.
Water is then removed in centrifuges, and the Mycoprotein left resembles a pasty
dough and has a mushroom-like smell.
After it is removed from the fermenter, the Mycoprotein is heated to 65°C. This breaks
down most of the fungal nucleic acid, the level of which would otherwise exceed health
and safety limits.
The next 6 statements cover processing after removal from the fermenter
After it is removed from the fermenter, the Mycoprotein is heated to 65°C. This breaks
down most of the fungal nucleic acid, the level of which would otherwise exceed health
and safety limits.
Water is then removed in centrifuges, and the Mycoprotein left resembles a pasty
dough and has a mushroom-like smell. →
Next, the Mycoprotein is mixed with a little free range egg and seasoning, to help bind
the mix.
It is then steam cooked for about 30 minutes and then chilled, before it is minced or
chopped into pieces.
The product is then frozen. This is a very important part of the process, as the ice
crystals help to push the fibres together, creating bundles that give Mycoprotein its
meat-like texture.
The pieces and mince are then sold under the Quorn™ brand and in a wide range of
other products. →
Producing mycoprotein using aseptic techniques
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AhdwpXzCrYc
Don’t do it this way with
students!
Fusarium solani
grown as a slope
culture in a
universal bottle
Further practical work
Provide students with samples of Quorn products so they
can see the finished product. They can handle this, look at
it under microscope etc.
Food testing: students can carry out tests for fat and
protein on the Quorn products to show these nutrients are
present in mycoprotein.
Using the data above, explain why Quorn
could be described as a healthier alternative
to meat.
Free trial of Multimedia Science School
http://inasialearning.docebosaas.com/lms/
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