Cyber Security challenges * Smart grid

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Introduction
PLENARY SESSION II: SMART GRIDS AND NETWORK RELIABILITY –
FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES
Smart grid- Integrating Renewable Generation
Prakash Nayak
Chairman Power Panel IET
Director Power Engineering & Automation
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Agenda
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
About PEnA
About Power System – Evolution and future
E- mobility -future transportation
Future Utilities look like…..”
Building tomorrow's grid today- Conclusion
The future grid – Smart Grid
Renewable Energy focus
Renewable Energy focus- India Vision & Mission
Integration of Renewable energy
Integration of Renewable energy - ICT Role
Renewable Integration Model (RIM)

Objectives

Renewable Energy Integration/Connectivity

Renewable Integration Model

Renewable Integration Model results and experience
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What is PEnA



Develop a Professional team in Power
Automation
including
Information
Communication Technology. All resources are
certified by IET, UK as Chartered Engineer
(CEng), Incorporate Engineer (IEng), etc.
thereby focusing on enhancement of technical
proficiency of the team and become valued
partner with companies in supporting them in
their engineering and technology needs.
Develop renewable energy solutions both
grid connected and off-grid connected thereby
achieving energy security and creating value to
all
stakeholders
through
sustainable
development.
Be front runner in smart grid initiative i.e. a
digitally enabled electrical grid in order to
improve Efficiency, Reliability, Economics and
Sustainability.
www.pena.co.in
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Evolution of “Power System”
 Electricity act 2003

Power sector has undergone a rapid revolution and
modernization through, enhanced capacity, renewable
energy introduction, distributed generation, micro grid
etc.
 Information Communication
Technology( ICT)

Much wider and deeper influence in the operation and
maintenance of the power grid encompassing
traditional generation, transmission, distribution
 Technological changes

The trend of protocols has been refined to be more
flexible and accommodating to industrial needs,
specifically in the open architecture and matching with
high speed communication.

Interoperability improves its interactions with other
systems.
E- mobility -future transportation:
Car manufacturers will continue to demonstrate their
commitment to smaller, more fuel efficient and
environmentally friendly cars with a focus
continues to be price and energy efficiency.
Charging for electric
vehicles
 Once Electric vehicles will gather a lot of attention
consumers before making the decision want to
know how quickly and conveniently they would
be able to charge an electric vehicle.
 Global fast-charging electric vehicle installations,
the potential options for consumers to pay for
charging their electrical vehicles and the current
market challenges facing electric vehicle
manufacturers.
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Electrical Vehicles - Charging infrastructure
 No of chargers per vehicle needed to be able to service the increasing
number of EVs on the road.
 At power levels of >10kW one charger can charge 10 vehicles.
 Similarly, a 50kW charger could charge roughly 50 vehicles.
 Essentially, the number of charging points will grow according to the increase in
use of electric vehicles.
 Grid challenge is how to cope with the increasingly large number of Evs.
 The core grid will not have a problem supplying the electricity over the next few
decades.
 The problem will show up around the substations because the periphery of the
grid has not been designed to handle large increases in local demand at peak
times, e.g. suburbs in the evening.
 Charging management and demand response solutions to deal precisely with
these localized demand issues.
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Electrical Vehicles -Billing and IT integration
 Consumers being billed for charging their vehicle



There are many potential charging models, which range from normal billing
according to kWhs usage to loyalty schemes where you can earn '"kWhs"' like
air miles and use them at home, to free charging tokens when you buy from
local shops.
It’s likely that telecoms operators will offer EV charging options through mobile
devices for their customers.
We are also likely to see schemes whereby consumers and utilities can trade
the charging capacity of the Lithium battery for temporary energy storage.
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Future Utilities look like…..”
 More informed and collaborative customers

Will have a profound impact on the shape of the power utility
industry as there will be demand and more control over their
energy sources and consumption.
 Utility industry's response to environmental
issues

Has given the industry valuable experience and a leadership
position in that area.
 Most utilities are not Globally Integrated
Enterprises,

Understanding “Globalization Gaps” seen with other industries
can help energy and utility industries think effectively about
leveraging elements of globalization.
These will cause major changes in business models
It will be combination of hardware, management and
 Gives way to transformational innovation in enterprise and
reporting
software, built atop an intelligent communications
revenue model
infrastructure.
Building tomorrow's grid today- Conclusion
things
are important…..
 Three
Secure
transmission
and distribution system
 AsAccess
technology
to poweradvances,
Become
increasingly reliant on secure electricity supplies
  Energy
Security

Carbon emission
 As demand for electricity rising year on year and also concern
for the environment
 More renewable energy sources online
 TSO(Transmission System Operators )are under
increasing pressure:
 To enhance the flexibility of their grids to improve capacity
 Accommodate the demands of deregulated power markets.
 Many companies offer sustainable solutions to the challenges
of today, and tomorrow.
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The future grid – Smart Grid
 A smart grid is a digitally enabled electrical grid that
gathers, distributes, and acts on information about the
behavior of all participants (suppliers and consumers) in
order to improve
 Efficiency,
 Reliability,
 Economics,
 Sustainability
 Consumer engagement
Renewables focus and its integration
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1
Renewable Energy focus
 We lived for many decades in the
situation of high concentrated
fuel …..
High
concentrated
fuel
 Now moving towards
increasingly difficult situation to
extract,……. so more failure etc.
(easy to
access)
 Thus leading to….
 Increasing demand for
renewable energy in capacity
enhancement
Increasing cost , Better
quality
Low concentration
( increasingly difficult)
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2
Renewable Energy focus
 Peek oil, peek natural gas, etc.
talks are on……
 We are reaching the limits,
………………….
 Every doubling capacity of
renewable …….Yield is 20%
(decrease in price this is economy
of scale )
 Electricity is generated with
…………………no taxing the
planet
Status of various fuel
Renewable
Coal
Crude Oil
Natural gas
Uranium
Years
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
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3
Renewable Energy focus
 While fossil fuels are being
exhausted at an alarming pace,
global energy consumption continues
to increase. The solution, however,
has always been around. We only
need to connect our grid to the sun.
 German Advisory Council on Global
Change (WBGU) estimates a major
reduction in the use of fossil energy by
the year 2100 and a substantial
development and expansion of new
renewable energy sources, notably
solar.
The global energy mix: exemplary path …..2050……2100
 With over 40% of worldwide electricity usage, buildings can be considered as the largest consumers of energy.
Therefore architects, consultants, developers, main contractors and investors are increasingly opting for
renewable energy produced in this environmentally responsible way as we aim towards passive energy
buildings.
 Photovoltaic technology is a promising solution transforming solar radiation into electricity connected to the grid
for mass usage. With PV modules, buildings gain considerable added value, which makes every investment in
this technology worthwhile. They also upgrade the value of renovation projects for existing buildings.
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Renewable Energy focus- remarkably bold initiative
 Denmark has announced that by the end of
this decade, it will produce a third of its energy
from renewable sources - wind power, in
particular, but also solar power and the
burning of "biomass.“
 More ambitiously, the Danish Government has
set a goal of running the entire country on
renewables by 2050.
 What makes Denmark's announcement even
more unusual is that it has won support from
across the country's political spectrum.
No matter what we do, we will have
an increase in the price of energy,
simply because people in India and
China want to have a car, want to
travel," she says.
"That is why we came out with a
clear ambition to be independent of
fossil fuels: so we are not vulnerable
to great fluctuations in energy price."
Lykke FriisDanish Liberal Party
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India is member of IRENA
•
•
Members of Agency
Signatories/applicants for memberships
 91 States and European Union are Members
of the Agency
 65 States are IRENA Signatories/ applicants
for membership
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Renewable Energy focus- India Vision & Mission
Vision :
 To upscale and mainstream the use of New and
Renewable Energy sources in furtherance of the
national aim of energy security and energy
independence
Mission:
 Develop, demonstrate and commercialize
technologies for harnessing new and renewable
energy sources in close concert with corporate,
scientific and technical institutions.
 Replace use of different fossil fuels wherever
possible, and increase access to electricity/
lighting in remote and rural areas, through
Renewable Energy Systems
 Increase the contribution of Renewable Energy in
the total energy mix of the country to 6 per cent
by 2022, with about 10 per cent contribution to
total electricity mix, in line with IEPR projections
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India: Wind Power potential
 The wind power potential on a
national
level,
base
data
collected
from
10
states
considering only 1% of land
availability, is around 46,092 MW.
Wind Speed: 6.0 m/s
Wind Speed: 6.4 m/s
Wind Speed: 7.0 m/s
Wind Speed: 7.5 m/s
Wind Speed: 8.0m/s
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Solar Power potential
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India: Solar Power potential

If tropical India were to convert just 1%
of the 5,000 trillion kilowatt-hour of
solar radiation it receives a year into
energy, the country will have enough to
meet its energy needs.

In most parts of India, clear sunny
weather is experienced ~300 days a
year.

The annual global radiation varies from
1600 to 2200 kWh/sq.m. The
equivalent energy potential is about
6,000 million GWh of energy per year.

The highest annual global radiation is
Leading to tremendous opportunity
received in Rajasthan and northern
Energy
Gujarat.
in Renewable
Average 3000 hours of sunshine per year
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Integration of Renewable energy
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Integration of Renewable energy - ICT
1. Power system Infrastructure
Operators,
Planners & Engineers
Central Generating
Station
Step-Up
Transformer
2. Communications and Information Infrastructure
Distribution
Substation
Control Center
Gas
Turbine
Receiving
Station
Distribution
Substation
Cogeneration
Turbine
Distribution
Substation
Microturbine
Photovoltaic systems
Diesel
Engine
Commercial
Fuel
cell
Cogeneration
Storage
Wind Power
Industrial
Commercial
Residential
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Integration of Renewable energy - ICT Role
 Billions of dollars spent on smart grid will go waste unless comparable
investments next-generation utility information technology (IT) systems that
collect, manage and analyze the increasing amounts of data.
 Awareness of these systems is growing with a new focus on, and
increased investment in, software and IT services for the smart grid,
 IT is becoming an important part of the transformation of network
operations as utilities exploit new data sources in order to improve network
efficiency,
 Silos of operations are being broken down, and new capabilities are
emerging based on large-scale information management, real-time data
analysis, and the move to closed-loop systems for managing, monitoring,
and controlling the smart grid."
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3
Smart grid challenges – Integrating Renewable

Present Infrastructure is inadequate and requires augmentation to support
the growth of Smart Grids.

Most renewable resources are intermittent and can not be relied on (in its
present form)for secure energy supply

The network will be mesh network with distributed generation connected
at various voltage level …….Challenges in designing an interface

Regulatory Policies to deal with consequences; like off peak, peak tariffs
and other related matters.

Impact of e-mobility ( e vehicles how to manage charging infrastructure)

Grid Operation : Monitoring & Control will be a challenge

Security challenges ……. Can not be ignored as increased complexity
and networked infrastructure
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Renewable Integration Model (RIM)- Objectives
 Understand and quantify the integration requirements and
cost of higher levels of variable power generation resources
 Study integration impacts under different scenarios
 Transparent, user friendly model
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Renewable Energy integration/connectivity
 Renewable energy integration group
 International Standards organization(ISO) has created this
 Guiding principle is creating Advanced idea of:
 Forecasting, dispatch visibility and future market
 Visibility Tech Working Group ( VTWG)
 Focus on defining Data from wind and solar generator and
implement central dispatch
 Dispatch Technical Working Group ( DTWG)
 Defining the technical limitation of wind and solar dispatch
data requirement and dispatch compliance rules etc.
requirement of dispatch parameters, rate, time
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RIM: Variety of inputs to determine renewable integration
requirements and costs
Inputs
Model
Installed variable renewable
generation
Detailed profiles and
variability for load &
generation
Forecast errors for load
& generation
Cost of conventional
resources
Outputs
Operating Flexibility
Requirements
(Reg, Load Following, DayAhead, Ramp)
Renewable
Integration
Model
(RIM)
Resources required to
integrate
Variable power (renewables)
Fixed and variable
cost of integration
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RIM: Items to be considered while modeling
 RIM focuses on the central issues:
 Evaluate incremental service requirements
 Estimate magnitude of resources to provide those services
 Estimate variable and fixed costs
 RIM is designed to achieve above goals with functional features below:
 Simple but careful
 Uses simplifying assumptions to represent complex issues
 Focus and care is placed on using all available information to best simulate
reality
 Runs quickly
 Transparent
 Accepts user input assumptions
 Uses fully transparent calculations
 Flexible




Can provide results across many scenarios and resource portfolios
User defines the analytical period and the system conditions
Can be updated as system and forecast capabilities change
Portable –based on Excel spreadsheets
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RIM: Statistical model that accounts for variability and
unpredictability
Minute-by-minute actual
5-minute forecast
Intra 5-min
variability
5-min forecast
error
Regulation
Hour-ahead forecast
Intra-hour
variability
Hour-ahead
forecast error
Load-following
Day-ahead
forecast error
DA Commitment
 Regulation
 RIM uses parameters that describe deviations from relevant scheduling
 Two primary parameters: intra 5-min volatility and average 5-minute forecast
error
 Load following
 RIM uses parameter that describe deviations between the 5-minute and the
hour-ahead schedules
 Two primary parameters: intra-hour variability and average hour-ahead
forecast error
 Day-ahead commitment
 Deviation between day-ahead and hour-ahead schedule
 The model uses all 5 statistical parameters shown above
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RIM: Steps in Estimating Resource Requirements
Reliability Requirement
Operating Flexibility Requirement
Operating
Flexibility
Hourly
Requirement
Planning
Reserve
Margin
Renewable
Hourly
Generation
MW
Renewable
Reliability
Contribution
(NQC)
Forecast Peak
Load
Projected
Hourly Load
Residual
Operating
Flexibility
Requirement
Additional Capacity
Required for
integration
Residual
Reliability
Requirement
Forecast Peak Load
+ Planning Reserve Margin
– Reliability Contribution of
Renewables (NQC)
Reliability Requirement
Hourly Load
+ Hourly Operating Flexibility Services
– Hourly renewable generation
Operating Flexibility Requirement
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RIM: Various costs to be considered
 Fixed Costs
 Fixed cost of resources in excess of reliability requirement
 Variable Costs
 Fuel and operating costs of resources providing flexibility
services
 Emission Costs
 Emission costs based on the incremental fuel use by
resources providing integration services
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RIM: Results depends on inputs( Accuracy) and experience
 RIM is a flexible tool
 RIM’s results vary depending on inputs and assumptions
used
 Range of results and refining of results based on practical
situation and studies
 Continuous improvements with learning's from the results
lead to better working model
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Questions ???
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Prakash Nayak
Director
Power Engineering and Automation P Limited
World Trade Center, 22nd Floor, Unit NO. 2201,
Brigade Gateway Campus,
Dr. Rajakumar Road, Malleswaram West,
Bangalore 560055,
www.pena.co.in
Email: [email protected], [email protected],
Phone: +91 80 49365427
Fax: +91 80 49365301
Mobile no +91 9901490954
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