International System History

Report
KEY EVENTS IN INTERNATIONAL
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
KEY EVENTS
 The
Beginning
 18th & 19th Centuries
 20th & 21st Centuries
THE BEGINNING
Why is this building, the
Friedensaal, significant
to international relations?
TREATY OF WESTPHALIA
Signed in 1648- ended the 30 Years War
TREATY OF WESTPHALIA-1648
3 things came out of the Treaty:
Sovereignty
States
System
18TH & 19TH CENTURIES
3 Key Changes Impacted System
Development
Demand for Popular Sovereignty
2) Westernization of international system
3) Culmination of multipolar system
1)
#1- EVOLUTION OF POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
3 things were involved:
#1- Historically Raison d’état prevailed



‘Requirements of the State’
Based on ‘the divine right of kings’
Meaning of sovereignty
#1- DEMAND FOR POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
3 things were involved:
#2 - Challenges to raison d’état

Push for ‘popular’ sovereignty


American Revolution (1776)
French Revolution (1789)
#1- DEMAND FOR POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
Demand caused 3 things to happen:
#3- Eventual collapse of dynasties
Tsarist Russia
 Austria-Hungary
 Ottoman Empire
 Imperial China
 Soviet Union

18TH & 19TH CENTURIES
3 Key Changes Impacted System
Development
Demand for Popular Sovereignty
2) Westernization of international system
3) Culmination of multipolar system
1)
WESTERNIZATION OF INT’L SYSTEM
Scientific & Technological Advances
 Guns & Gunpowder
 Naval Technology
 Industrial Revolution
Mass production
 Advances in transportation
 Advances in communication

WESTERNIZATION OF INT’L SYSTEM
Colonization & Imperialism
What are these?
 Where?

THE AMERICAS
AFRICA
ASIA
THE SUN NEVER SETS
18TH & 19TH CENTURIES
3 Key Changes Impacted System
Development
Demand for Popular Sovereignty
2) Westernization of International System
3) Culmination of Multipolar System
1)
Culmination of Multipolar System
Types of World Systems:
Unipolar System
 Bipolar System
 Multipolar System
 Modified Multipolar System

POWER POLES
Power
Pole
Power
Pole
Power
Pole
Growing
Power
Growing
Power
Power
Pole
20TH & 21ST CENTURIES
 World
War I -1914-1919
Bolshevik Revolution -1917
 Post-WWI


The Great Depression -1929
 World

War II -1939-1945
Post WWII
 Cold
War Era -1945-1991
 Post CW Era -1991 to present
WORLD WAR I
 Treaty

of Versailles
War Reparations
 Empires
end
Austro-Hungarian Empire
 Ottoman Empire

OTTOMAN EMPIRE FROM 1807-1924
•All of Austria, Hungary, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic,
Slovakia, Slovenia,
•Large parts of Serbia, Romania
•Bits of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Ukraine
POST WORLD WAR I
 Rise
of Soviet Union
 Rise of German nationalism
 The Great Depression -1929
 Munich Conference -1938
Sudentenland
 Appeasement Policy

WORLD WAR II
 European
Theater of Operations
 Pacific Theater of Operations
POST WORLD WAR II
 Emergence
of a Bipolar System
 Formation of the United Nations
 Decolonization
Reasons for
 Difficulties for former colonies

WAR OF IDEOLOGIES:
DEMOCRACY V. COMMUNISM
Securing Interests in Europe

United States
Marshall Plan, Truman Plan
 Formation of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO)


Soviet Union
Eastern European takeover= Eastern Bloc
 Warsaw Treaty Pact

COLD WAR FOREIGN POLICY
 Cuban
Missile Crisis -1962
 US Containment Doctrine
Korean War
 McCarthyism
 Vietnam War

 Nixon
goes to China -1972
 SU invades Afghanistan -1979
 Brief era of détente

Thawing of relations
COLD WAR ERA-THE REAGAN YEARS
 Détente

ends
Reagan Administration
 New
Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev -
1985
Perestroika (economic restructuring)
 Glasnost (openness)

 Berlin

Eastern Bloc countries follow
 Fall

Wall is torn down -1989
of the Soviet Union -1991
End of bipolar system
POST-COLD WAR ERA
 Modified
Multipolar System
 Global North v. Global South
 European Union
Expansion of EU in P-CW era
 Adoption of euro -1999

 China
(WTO)
joins World Trade Organization
POST-COLD WAR ERA
 9/11
'War on Terror‘ begins
 Challenges traditional approach to
security

 War

in Afghanistan -2001
Operation Enduring Freedom
 Iraq
-2003
 Arab Spring -2011

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