Born in Blood and Fire chap 3

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BORN IN BLOOD AND FIRE
Chapter 3: Independence
(pages 90-116)
KEY QUESTIONS
 What
was the context in which
independence was gained?
 What events and ideas influenced the
revolutions?
 Who was and who was not involved? To
what extent were they involved?
 How did the outcomes of the revolutions
match the founding ideals?
Violence and Invasion
 Napoleonic Wars
(1799-1815
 Carlos IV drove state
into bankruptcy
 Imprisonment of
 Increased taxes and
Spanish king gave
sale of political offices colonies de facto
for revenue
independence
Bad government in
Spain

Resentment among
Spanish Americans
EUROPEAN CONTEXT
EUROPEAN IDEAS FLY ACROSS THE
ATLANTIC
•Loyalists
Peninsulars •Selected first
•Privileged jobs
Creoles
Natives, Africans,
Mixed Descent
•Compete with Peninsulars
•Rebels
•Maybe rebels
•80% of the population
•Annoyed by Creoles in daily life
Slaves???
SOCIAL HIERARCHIES AND
REVOLUTIONARY CRIES
AMERICAN REBELLIONS BEGIN
SLOWLY



Mexico
Hidalgo inspires peasants, but “too !Viva la revolucion!
indigenous for the Creoles
Father Morelos, a mestizo, energies
creoles and lower classes
Peru
Tupac Amaru II’s revolt of 1780s
scare away creoles from uniting
natives
Venezuela + Argentine
 Both had active creole
movements against Spain
CREOLES FOUND THEMSELVES
IN A PICKLE
Too few Creoles for a
revolution
 Considered indigenous
rebellions dangerous
 Need to unite with
lower classes to fight
Peninsulars





“NATIVISM”
Birthplace distinguishes
“them” from “us”
Creoles, Natives and
Mestizo were now
Americanos
Peninsulars were not
Americanos
Now Americanos v
Peninsulars
UNITING CREOLES AND NATIVES AGAINST SPAIN
BACKGROUND



King Jao was living in Brazil
to escape Napoleon
Jao left son to rule over
Brazil when forced back to
Portugal
New leader declared “Empire
of Brazil”
KEY DIFFERENCES


WHAT ABOUT BRAZIL?
No need to fight the king—
the king declared
independence
Imperial army too small to
oppose declaration
SIMON BOLIVAR
 Began revolutions in
Venezuela
 Moved to Ecuador
 Finished the work of an
Martin after he fled to
Europe
JOSE DE SAN MARTIN




THE LIBERATORS
Launched surprise
attack from Argentina
through Chile
From Chile, captured
Lima, Peru
Made his way towards
the center of the
continent, but had to
flee
Bolivar finished
liberation in highlands
SPANISH CONTROL
CREOLE CONTROL
Patriarchy
Patriarchy
Racism
Racism
Classicism
Classicism
UNFINISHED REVOLUTION?
WAS BOLIVAR THE LATIN GEORGE
WASHINGTON?
VOCABULARY TO KNOW

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