DR KS KUPOLATI MB,BS (IB.); (F.MAS) OB-GYN India PGDip. IVF/ICSI/IUI/ANDROLOGY (UP-IND) Cert. in Advanced Clinical Sonography (Nig. & India) Cert. in Upper & Lower GI Endoscopy (New Delhi) Fellow, Institute of Industrial Administration of Nig. FIIA Life Member, European Society for Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) Life Member, European Association for Endoscopic surgery (E.A.E.S) Life Member, World Association of Laparoscopic Surgeons. Infertility Specialist & Laparoscopic Surgeon Director, Iye IVF unit. TYPES OF INFERTILITY PRIMARY INFERTILITY SECONDARY INFERTILITY EFFECT ON OUR EMOTIONS SADNESS Number of infertile couples globally - >100 million. Associated with : - Female factor - 40% - Male factor-30-40% - Common to both partners 15-20% . - Unexplained 5-10% Coital difficulty PID EPISODES PERCENT 0 1 2 3+ 1% 8% 22% 41% Low sperm counts Abnormal sperm morphology (shape) A low sperm motility are usually asymptomatic conditions to most males. Most cases of low sperm counts are "idiopathic" or unexplained. Some cases are associated with a swollen varicose vein in the scrotum, called a varicocele. Stress • Heat to the genitals (e.g.. tight clothing, saunas or hot tubs) • Harmful lifestyle habits ( tobacco, alcohol, or drugs such as marijuana). • Short term illnesses, significant stressful periods, • Medications may temporarily affect sperm counts. • Exposure to hazardous toxins, chemicals, or radiation Infections such as mumps, or venereal diseases Testicular injury (sports or work injury) Childhood illness (failure of a testicle to descend properly) Blockage of one of the ducts allowing flow of sperm from the testicle Injury, infection or prior vasectomy Genetic absence of these ducts (cystic fibrosis) Immune reaction against sperm (antisperm antibodies) Testicular failure and other hormonal problems Chronic medical illness (thyroid disease, diabetes, and hypertension) Spinal cord injuries and paralysis Varicocele A MERE TEST OF OUR RESILIENCE We do not play God We do not create life We only help it’s expression. GOD IS ALWAYS THE ANSWER THROUGH OUR LORD & SAVIOUR.