KULIAH 4 - DISAGREGASI

Report
PERENCANAAN AGREGAT (DISAGREGASI) &
TEORI KAPASITAS
Kuliah 4
LSiPro – FT Untirta
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
3rd Edition 2014
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Tujuan Pembelajaran
• Mahasiswa mampu menggunakan teknik
disagregasi
• Mahasiswa mampu menyusun Master
Production Schedule (MPS) atau Jadwal Induk
Produksi (JIP).
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Definisi Work Center
• Section of a production facility where all task
associated with a particular process (such as
assembling, painting, welding) are performed.
• It usually has more than one machine.
Sumber: http://www.businessdictionary.com/
definition/work-center.html#ixzz11xhyQTXS
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Ilustrasi Work Center
WELDING
CUTTING
MACHINE
WELDING
CIRLING
MACHINE
Main
Assembly
Table
SAFETY
EQUIPMENT
Welding Work Center
Support
Assembly
Table
Boxes
Assembly Work Center
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Workstation
• Assigned location for an employee to perform
his or her job, and which is equipped with all
the required tools and facilities.
• It usually has one main working component.
• It is specifically dedicated to one employee
only.
• Workstations are commonly networked
together.
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Workstation Illustration
Main
Machine
Incoming
WIP
Outgoing
WIP
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Takt Time
Takt Time = Total Daily Operating Time / Total Daily Customer Requirements
Where Operating Time does not include TPM, 5S, meeting times, breaks, etc…
So… Takt time is calculated and not measured. It can help to determine process
capabilities
Contoh:
Customer A requires 5000 pieces per week or 1000 pieces per day.
Operating time is 8 hours – breaks = 7,5 hours/shift
Tak time = (7,5 hours x 3600 seconds/hours) / (1000 pieces)
= 27 seconds/piece
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Definisi Kapasitas
• the rate of output from an OM system per unit
of time
• the rate at which the firm withdraws work
from the system
• Jumlah masukan sumberdaya-sumberdaya
yang tersedia relatif untuk kebutuhan
keluaran pada waktu tertentu.
• Satuan unit : jumlah/waktu atau waktu/unit
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Definisi Kapasitas Produksi
• In general, production capacity is the maximum
production rate of an organization (or maximum
conversion rate of a production system) in any
given period.
• Sustainable practical capacity is the greatest level
of output that a plant can maintain:
within the framework of a realistic work
schedule
taking account of normal downtime
assuming sufficient availability of inputs to
operate the machinery and equipment in place
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Definisi Macam-Macam Kapasitas (1)
 Design Capacity : tingkat keluaran per satuan
untuk mana pabrik dirancang.
 Rated Capacity ; tingkat keluaran per satuan
waktu yang menunjukkan bahwa fasilitas secara
teoritik mempunyai kemampuan memproduksi.
 Standard capacity : tingkat keluaran per satuan
waktu yang ditetapkan sebagai sasaran
pengoperasian bagi manajemen, supervisi dan
para operator mesin, dapat digunakan sebagai
dasar bagi penyusunan anggaran.
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Definisi Macam-Macam Kapasitas (2)
 Actual dan atau operating capacity : tingkat
keluaran rata-rata per satuan waktu selama
periode waktu yang telah lewat = kapasitas
standar ± cadangan-cadangan, penundaan,
tingkat sisa nyata.
 Peak capacity : jumlah keluaran per satuan waktu
yang dapat dicapai melalui maksimisasi keluaran
dengan kerja lembur, menambah tenaga kerja,
mengurangi jam istirahat dan sebagainya.
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
How a plant/system is organized
Level of output of a plant or system is
dependent on how it is organized
capacity in sequence: linear operations, is
based on the operation with the lowest
amount of capacity
capacity in parallel:
multiple alternative operations
any machine can be used
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Capacity in Sequence
capacity in sequence: linear operations, is
based on the operation with the lowest
amount of capacity.
Contoh:
Operasi 1 : 20 unit/jam
Operasi 2 : 10 unit/jam
Operasi 3 : 15 unit/jam
Maka kapasitas sistem adalah 10 unit/jam
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Capacity in Sequence (Illustration)
Dalam 1 jam
menghasilkan
20 unit
20/jam
Meski ada
inputan 20 unit
dalam 1 jam.
Stasiun ini
hanya mampu
menghasilkan
10 unit
10/jam
Meski mampu
menghasilkan 15
unit dalam 1 jam.
Namun karena
hanya ada
inputan 10 unit
maka dalam 1
jam hanya
menghasilkan 10
unit
15/jam
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Dalam satu
jam hanya
akan
dihasilkan
10 unit
Capacity in Parallel
 capacity that is based on the sum of the capacities of
the various machines that make up the operation.
 Contoh:
 Operation 3 has 4 machines
 machine 1 - 90 pieces per minute
 machine 2 - 110 pieces per minute
 machine 3 -120 pieces per minute
 machine 4 - 80 pieces per minute
 Total capacity for operation 3 = 400 pieces/min
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Capacity in Parallel (Illustration)
Dalam satu menit
dihasilkan
90/menit
90 unit
110/menit
110 unit
120/menit
120 unit
80/menit
80 unit
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
90 + 110 + 120
+ 80 = 400
unit/menit
How about this one?
90/menit
100/meni
t
70/menit
110/meni
t
80/menit
60/menit
120/meni
t
150/meni
t
135/meni
t
80/menit
50/menit
90/menit
Berapa Kapasitas Produksi Sistem ini dalam 1 jam?
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
?
URGENSI DISAGREGASI
Disagregasi diperlukan jika peramalan
dilakukan dalam unit aggregate, namun jika
peramalan tidak dilakukan dalam unit
aggregate maka disagregasi tidak diperlukan.
Sementara peramalan dalam unit aggregate
dilakukan atas dasar simplifikasi (filosofi dari
aggregate plan)
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Alur Proses Pengolahan Data –
Peramalan – Rencana Agregat
Item
Data Produk
A
Data
Data Produk
B
Data Produk
C
Data family
A
Data
Data family
B
Data family
C
Family
Family
Agregasi
Agregasi
Disagregasi
Peramalan
Family
Agregasi
Agregasi
Agregasi
Agregasi
Perancangan
Agregat
Family
Disagregasi
MPS
Disagregasi
Peramalan
Family
Perancangan Disagregasi
Agregat
Family
Peramalan
Family
Perancangan Disagregasi
Agregat
Family
Peramalan
Family
Perancangan Disagregasi
Agregat
Family
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
MPS
Perhitungan Persentase
(dengan nilai penjualan)
Periode
Family X
(hasil forecast 2010)
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Mei
Jun
200
250
400
210
450
255
Sept
65.00
50.00
85.00
200
Okt
180.00
100.00
120.00
400
Nov
90.00
50.00
100.00
240
Dec
150.00
80.00
110.00
340
Data Penjualan Terdahulu (2009)
Periode
Jul
Agu
Produk A 100.00 80.00
Demand
Produk B 80.00 65.00
Records
Produk C 120.00 115.00
Family X
300
260
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Perhitungan Persentase
(dengan nilai penjualan)
Perhitungan Persentase
Harga
Produk
Periode
Produk
100.00
Produk A
A
Demand
200.00
Produk B
B
Records
150.00
Produk C
C
Family X
Jul
Agu
Sept
Okt
Nov
Dec
10,000.00 8,000.00 6,500.00 18,000.00 9,000.00 15,000.00 66,500.00
16,000.00 13,000.00 10,000.00 20,000.00 10,000.00 16,000.00 85,000.00
18,000.00 17,250.00 12,750.00 18,000.00 15,000.00 16,500.00 97,500.00
44,000.00 38,250.00 29,250.00 56,000.00 34,000.00 47,500.00 249,000.00
Disagregasi Hasil Peramalan
Periode
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Mei
Jun
200
250
400
210
450
255
Produk A
53.41
66.77
106.83
56.08
120.18
68.10
Produk B
68.27
85.34
136.55
71.69
153.61
87.05
Produk C
78.31
97.89
156.63
82.23
176.20
99.85
Family X
Demand
Forecast
Total
Example : MPS Januari (Produk A) = 200 x 0,27 = 53,41
MPS Januari (Produk B) = 200 x 0,34 = 68,27
MPS Januari (Produk C) = 200 x 0,39 = 78,31
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Persentase
0.27
0.34
0.39
Disagregasi Menggunakan Teknik Persentase
(dengan pertimbangan nilai conversion)
Data Penjualan Terdahulu
Periode
Jul
Demand
Records
Agu
Sept
Okt
Nov
Dec
Produk A 100.00
80.00
65.00
180.00
90.00
150.00
Produk B
65.00
50.00
100.00
50.00
80.00
Produk C 120.00 115.00
85.00
120.00
100.00
110.00
200
400
240
340
80.00
300
Family X
260
Perhitungan Persentase
Produk
A
Waktu Conversi
Proses
on
74.34
Periode
0.61
Produk A
B
62.32
0.51
Demand
Produk B
Records
C
121.38
1.00
Produk C
Family X
Jul
Agu
Sept
Okt
Nov
Dec
Total
%
61.25
49.00
39.81
110.24
55.12
91.87
407.28
0.32
41.07
33.37
25.67
51.34
25.67
41.07
218.21
0.17
120.00
115.00
85.00
120.00
100.00
110.00
650.00
0.51
222.32
197.37
150.48
281.59
180.79
242.94
1,275.49
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Disagregasi Menggunakan Teknik Persentase
(dengan pertimbangan nilai conversion)
Disagregasi (Persentase dari nilai penjualan)
Periode
Jan
Feb
Family X
200
250
Produk A
63.86
79.83
Demand
Produk B
34.22
42.77
Forecast
Produk C 101.92 127.40
Mar
400
127.73
68.43
203.84
Apr
210
67.06
35.93
107.02
Example : MPS Januari (Produk A) = 200 x 0,32 = 63,86
MPS Januari (Produk B) = 200 x 0,17 = 34,22
MPS Januari (Produk C) = 200 x 0,51 = 101,92
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Mei
450
143.69
76.98
229.32
Jun
255
81.43
43.62
129.95
Hasil Disagregasi (MPS/JIP)
Master Production Schedule / Jadwal Induk Produksi
Periode
Produk A
Demand
Produk B
Forecast
Produk C
Jan
64
35
102
Feb
80
43
128
Mar
128
69
204
Muhammad Adha Ilhami
Apr
68
36
108
Mei
144
77
230
Jun
82
44
130

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