Active Defense and Predator Specialization

Active Defense
and Predator
By: Jed and Damien
What is Active Defense?
Active defense is a form of defense in
motion, for example: running, jumping,
attacking and evolution.
Some animals are armed with weapons like
sharp teeth or a stinger.
Animals can also evolve to give themselves
things like sharper teeth, longer teeth,
thicker skin or longer legs.
The animals will evolve to use anything it
can to protect itself.
Examples of Active Defense
Why do animals have Active
Animals, prey especially need it because
their predators will always be hunting their
Active defense is use full because it allows
the prey to either escape the predator’s
attack or it allows them to escape their
predator’s successfully.
Passive Defense –
Defense due to the presence of a structural
component that is already present in its body
Mimicry – the technique to imitate another
Camouflage – involving shape, colors, and
patterning modification
Ex: Quills on a porcupine
Active Defense – examples
A male chameleon guards his territory
fiercely against rival males and frightens
them off by inflating his lungs which puffs up
his body.
Rattle snakes have a rattle on the end of
their tail that they use to scare away
predators that would try to kill it, although it
doesn’t work well on flying predators.
Predator Specialization
What is Predator
Types of predators
-Generalist- Predators who hunt anything
-Specialist- Predators who specialize in one
prey and evolve according to their prey and
the environment
Examples of Predators
Generalist – Lions (impalas, buffalo, zebras,
warthogs, etc…)
Specialist – Weasels (small rodents)
Generalist and Specialist
Being a generalist and specialist isn’t limited
to the animal kingdom.
For example; some plants require very
specific temperatures, soil conditions and
light to grow like and survive like marijuana
while others such as the cactus require very
little water and don’t require very rich soil at
Predator specialization Generalist
A generalist species is able to thrive in a
wide variety of environmental conditions and
can make use of a variety of different
Omnivores are usually generalists, they are
generalists because their diet consists of
many things such as multiple plant species
and multiple prey.
Predator Specialization Specialist
A specialist species can only thrive in a
narrow range of environmental conditions or
has a limited diet.
Herbivores are often specialists, but
herbivores that eat a large variety of different
plants may be considered generalists.
A well-known specialist is the koala, almost
the entire diet of the koala consists of
eucalyptus leaves.
Evolutionary Arms Race
The predators and prey constantly evolve Whenever prey’s defense gets improved
(poison, run faster, etc . ) the predator must
adapt to these changes so that the
equilibrium is maintained.
Example of evolutionary arms
A parasite and its host Dodo bird became
extinct because it lacked the experience of
constantly evolving to beat the invasive
species (such as: crab eating macaques)
Female lions vs. Buffalo

similar documents