GUNPOWDER EMPIRES File

Report
Gunpowder Empires
1450-1750
Land Based Power
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Europe’s empires built on sea power
Asian empires land-based power around might
of gunpowder
Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals, Ming and Qing,
and Russia
Finally able to conquer nomad groups
Muslim Empires
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Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
Emerged from central steppe nomads
All had Absolute monarchs who modeled their courts
after early Islamic empires
Ottoman Empire
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Suleiman
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Modern day Turkey
1st people to use cannons offensively
Large army of mounted and foot soldiers,
Powerful navy
Sultan with large bureaucracy, top official
was “grand vizier”
Suleiman the Magnificent most famous
ruler
Much trade, due to location
Mostly Sunni, but diversity of people and
religions
More equality for women
Constantinople, highly sophisticated
capital
Safavid Empire
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East of Ottoman, modern Iran
Belief that “Hidden Imam” descendant of Ali would
return to rule
Ruler “stand-in” until then
Strong army with firearms
Little trade
Patriarchal
Mostly Shi’ite, forced conversion in 16th Century by
Ismail
Mughal Empire
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Modern day Pakistan, Afghanistan, and N. India
Strong military
Muslim rulers with centralized power
Muslim authority over rebellious Hindu Pop.
Akbar most famous ruler, tried to reconcile faiths
Limited trade
Land grant system based on military service
New faith: Sikhism; blend of Islam and Hinduism
Decline of Muslim Empires
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Inadequate transportation and communication: larger
empires grew, harder they were to control
Unruly warrior elites, inadequate bureaucracies:
Military knew they were important, so often acted
apart from the gov’t
Rise of European rivals: European countries smaller
so mobilization of human and natural resources
easier, also closeness led to more competition so they
were spurred to new technologies and reforms
Russia
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Little contact with rest of Europe
Greek Orthodox
1480 Ivan III (the Great) ousted the last of the
Mongols
Russia was left weak, but expanded under Ivan III
and Ivan IV (the terrible)
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Expanded to Poland and across Siberia
Pioneers called Cossacks sent to new territories,
taking land
Ivan IV died with no heir, so Romanovs took over
in 1613 (until 1917)
Russian nobles, Boyars, selected the new Tsar,
Mikhail
Peter the Great
r. 1682-1725
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Went to western Europe to gain aid
against Turks, became fascinated with
Western European technology &
science
Fought with Sweden for a port on the
Baltic
Rebuilt his capital at St. Petersburg
Boyars had to shave and adopt Western
dress
Brought French ballet to Russia and
allowed elite women to public events
Stayed Absolute Monarch (did not
adopt Enlightenment ideas)
Continued serfdom (virtual slavery)
and controlled subjects through a
secret police
Peter’s Palace in Moscow
Expansion of Peter the Great
Ming and Qing China
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Ming 1368-1644, replaced Yuan,
brought peace and stability
China mostly closed to foreigners
Scholar-gentry and civil-service
exams returned
Junks – Zheng He, to show off wealth
and power of Middle Kingdom
Pirates kept them out of the ocean
Repaired Great Wall and Canals
Jesuits sent to Convert, allowed to
remain because they knew science
and technology
Europeans restricted to coast
Emperor lived in Forbidden City,
eventually became too involved in
pleasure, overthrown
Qing Dynasty
1644 - 1911
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Known as Manchus, conquered
from the North
Doubled the size of China
Traded with Russia
Population began to grow due
to new crops: Sweet and white
potatoes, Maize, peanuts
Last Dynasty (yay! You know
them all!!)
“Grrr.”
Expansion under Qing
Tokugawa Shogunate
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Jesuits converted over 300,000,
Japan felt must consolidate under
a powerful shogun, Tokugawa
Ieyasu
1606 Christianity outlawed,
executed
Japanese forbidden to travel
overseas
Europeans not allowed in (except
Dutch)
Guns virtually banned
Agriculture flourished
Power in hands of Samurai class
Capital at Edo, now Tokyo
Under Tokugawa
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To maintain control,
Daimyos had to go to Edo
every other year (this meant
the Tokugawa had direct
control over 50% always)
Needed permission to marry
or build
Class structure (4 classes)
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Samurai (with Daimyo) –
sword and topknot
Farmers – made food
Artisans – made stuff
Merchants – lowest, made
nothing
Reconquista
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Mid 15th Century Spain united with Marriage
of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile
This led to three important things:
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Reconquista (Reconquest) of former Muslim
territory
Expulsion of Jews, led to severe economic
problems because they were educated and skilled
Voyage of Columbus
Vocabulary
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Boyars
Cossacks
Manchus
Jesuits
Janissaries
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Reconquista
Mughal Empire
Tokugawa Shogunate
mercantilism

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