Common Sense By: Thomas Paine Group 1: Matt Fidurko, Katie Lyter, Kristin Youngs, Megan Burgess, Davey Carls, Alex Anzivine Society vs. Government • “Society is produced by our wants and government by our wickedness” • Society promotes our happiness POSITIVELY • Government restrains our behavior NEGATIVELY • “The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.” • Society is great, but Government restricts “Government is a necessary evil” • Government restricts Society and forces us to give up freedoms • It can be destructive and evil • Society and Government must have a PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE • Ensures the SECURITY of the people We Need Government! • • • • TO GOVERN ENSURE FREEDOM SECURITY HELP SOCIETY WITH MORAL VALUES Direct Democracy turns into a Republic • Colonies get TOO BIG TO ASSEMBLE – Forcing people to get elected and represent “THE WHOLE” •General mix won’t KEEP THEIR OWN OPINIONS •Common change of the elected will lead to the whole community happy Advantages of Absolute Government • Simple type of Government • People would know: – WHO IS IN CHARGE – WHO IS CAUSING THE SUFFERING – SUFFRAGE COULD MOST LIKELY BE CURED Complexity of British Government • Society may suffer for a long time without anyone actually knowing the cause • The British Government is divided between: – Monarchial Tyranny of the King – Aristocratical Tyranny of the Peers – The Commons Checks and Balances,“absurd” • Commons are supposed to be wiser and can check the King • King also has power to check the commons by rejecting their bills • THEY CONTRADICT THEMSELVES! • “HOW CAME THE KING BY A POWER WHICH THE PEOPLE ARE AFRAID TO TRUST, AND ALWAYS OBLIGED TO CHECK? Such a power could not be the gift of wise people , neither can any power, WHICH NEEDS CHECKING, be from God: yet the provision which the constitution makes supposes such a power to exist.” •Constitution requires us to have a “King” •King is DISTRUSTED and receives checking from society •NO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IN AMERICA! • “by the will of the king is as much the law of the land in Britain as in France, with this difference, that instead of proceeding directly from his mouth, it is handed to the people under the formidable shape of an act of parliament. For the fate of Charles The First, hath only made kings more subtle- not more just.” •Form of government similar to an Absolute Monarchy •Looked at more subtle because it seems the people now approve it • “The prejudice of Englishmen, in favour of their own government, by King, Lords and Commons, arises as much or more from national pride than reason.” •Prejudice of the Englishmen comes from the pride of their nation, rather than coming with reason Enlightenment and the Bible Mankind is equal in the order of creation Thomas Paine states “ Equality could only be destroyed by subsequent circumstance...” Paine refers to the pages of the Bible Not a Christian, uses the passages of Samuel People trusted faith and religion before the Enlightenment He uses the Bible to express his point so that people understand Monarchies and God God disapproves of monarchy - monarchies give too much power to one person - misfortune is brought onto the subjects under the King’s rule A republic is affective - protects citizens from unfair rule - ex. Jewish community first had a republic, but the citizens wanted monarchy Samuel, the Mediator Samuel is a mediator between God and the people God suggests a king is destructive of liberty God is the only one who can judge his people The people added on to their sins “Popery of Government” Paine refers to monarchy as “Popery of Government” “Popery of Government”- heads of government Pope is head of Roman Catholic Church King/Queen are heads of government Pope- Head of Roman Catholic Church King- head of government Hereditary Monarchy Paine thinks hereditary monarchy is absurd Not all descents are worthy of complete power Ex. Rehoboam – fostered dangerous principles - Inaugurated taxes and levies No one by birth should have the right to rule Honors, intelligence, sincerity, and equality “ASS FOR A LION” Hereditary Monarchy and England First established based on tradition People didn’t want to change Superstition Monarchy in England Not “natural” William the Conqueror Named himself king William the Conqueror First Chosen Kings Precedents that exclude succession Kings chosen by lot Chosen by election Chosen by usurpation English monarchy Didn’t chose king in the previous ways Hereditary = Bad Monarchies Hereditary Monarchy Kings chosen by genetics Succession Bad Rulers vs. Good Rulers Unworthy and unfair kings Kings being born into power Reasons and Ridiculousness Plausible- stopping civil wars Eight civil wars First Civil War (1642-1646) Second Civil War (1647-1649) Third Civil War (1649-1651) Nineteen rebellions England’s Constitution Glory of the Constitution House of Commons Poison of the Constitution Crown Works Cited Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Part II, Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession. Print. Images: Googleimages.com Kendra Antle, Kate Cecchi, Abbey Jones, Robby Higby, Dom Saglimben, Katelyn Woods Period 7 J.C.C. History Mr. Roh Common Sense: Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession Madison Moran, Kellie Smith, Shelby Grimmer Enlightenment Theories • Paine thought all men are equal – No matter rich or poor Christian References • Uses them to make his point • Majority of the audience Christian – Show that it goes against god. (sin) Why God disapproves • It is a sin to idolize anything/anyone other than god. • God says “kings equal people being enslaved, cook and bakers, instruments of war.” • Kings will take the benefits of the people “Popery of government” • PEOPLE CONTRADICT THEMSELVES! • Popery= pope having total control • People did not like pope having total control. • Yet people wanted monarchy • King= having total control of government Absurdity of hereditary monarchies • You never know what you’re going to get • Taking away the rights of future generations How It Started • Most likely from a savage tribe choosing the head of their group (Lord of the Flies) • Having sons lead was “convenient” • After a few generation it became traditional “It’s just not natural!’ • All men are born with equal rights. No birth should be any more important. • Adam chose to disobey god, it affected his children • Adam= hereditary succession Kings chosen by lot • Choosing by lot= random king • Most likely will not have good leadership skills • Could be a “couch potato” Kings chosen by election • The people vote for the king • Hereditary succession= children won’t be as qualified as voted leader Kings by usurpation • William the Conqueror • Take over by force; makes themselves leader • No right to power= descendents have no right to power Born Naive • Royal children= spoiled brats • Don’t empathize with their people= leads to making wrong decisions • Foolish, evil, wrong leaders Monarchies prevents civil wars… Pssshhtt, yeah right. • Monarchies are supposed to prevent civil wars • If this was true it would be one good thing about monarchies • BUT England's has a history of 8 civil war and 19 rebellions under monarchies The “Glory” of the Constitution • Common people in England thought they had a say in government= House of Commons • King held the true power and bribed members of the House of Commons • To say England is a “Republic” is a greatly By Thomas Paine Part IV Annie McHone Melanie Hudson, Ryan Vossler, Lexie Zimmer, Josh Greaves, Andrew Stady “Small islands not capable of protecting themselves are the proper objects for kingdoms to take under their care; but there is something very absurd, in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island.” - Typically, the empire with the strong central government protects the weak. - In this case, Britain, an island, rules over America, a huge continent. Why does Paine refer to King George III as the “Sullen tempered Pharaoh of England”? - Ignores the pain he is causing because he believes he is all powerful. - King angrily punishes colonies -Similar belief of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Why is separation the only possible way forward? -Move backward forever if American’s submit to British laws. - Always be arguing over change that will never come. - America is already greater than what the king wishes. - Only way forward is to break away from the king. Why is reconciliation not possible? - Reuniting with British is foolish. -Bond between those in England, and those in colonies is weak. - Grudges -Tensions would carry on for centuries to come. What does Paine propose is a major problem with monarchies? - Monarchies are always at war within themselves or other countries. - Kings believe that their thoughts are correct. - Kings don’t actually understand what goes on in their country. What type of government does Paine propose would be best for America? -Paine wants a republican government. - Laws passed through voting. - Each colony would sent at least thirty delegates to one Congress. - Laws must have three fifths of Congress to pass. What does Paine mean when he declares that in America “LAW IS KING”? - We did not focus on one leader. - We focus on a set of written laws to rule us. Why does Paine believe that his understanding of the nature of government is a product of the Enlightenment? - Paine believes in natural rights. - Paine believes that government should be ruled by people and a set of laws, not a divine ruler. - Paine states that all people have liberties. Who is the “fugitive” Paine speaks of? - The fugitive is freedom. - No one has yet found freedom. Who must receive the fugitive? -All countries must receive the fugitive. - If everyone can receive freedom then they can achieve world peace.