Chp. 8 Section 3 Notes

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Chapter 8 Section 3
NATIONALISM
Types of Nationalist Movements
 1. Unification
 - Mergers of politically divided by culturally similar
 - Examples- Italy and Germany
lands
 2. Separation
 -Culturally distinct group resists being added to a state or tries
to break away
 - Examples-Greece, Mexico
 3. State- Building
 -Culturally different groups form into a new state by accepting
a single culture.
 - examples- The U.S. and Turkey
Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
 1. The Austrian Empire
 - Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs, and
Italians
 - Austro- Prussian war lose German States
 - Hungarians pressure Emperor Francis Joseph to split empire in two (AustriaHungary)
 - After WWI breaks into several Nation- States
 2. The Russian Empire
 - Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians,
Georgians, Armenians, and Turks
 - Try Russification but it backfires and strengthens nationalist sentiments
 - WWI and the communist revolution finally dissolve it in 1917
 3. The Ottoman Empire
 - Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, and Armenians
 -Give equal citizenship to all people in 1856 leads to many problems
 -Finally breaks up after WWI
Italy
 1. Camilo di Cavour named Sardinia’s Prime minister.
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- Wants to Unite Northern Italy
- With France’s help defeat Austria and get’s all of Northern Italy
except Venetia
- Secretly helps Nationalist rebels in Southern Italy
 2. Giuseppe Garibaldi
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- Nationalist leader captures Sicily in May 1860
- After Sicily goes north and captures more of Italy
- Agreed to unite lands he had gained with those held by PiedmontSardinia. Sardinian king rules.
 3. Italy United
 - 1866 Venetia taken
 -1870 Papal states under Italian control
Germany
 1. Prussia
 - Prussia mainly has a German Population
 - Had most powerful army in Central Europe
 - 1848 Berlin rioters force a constitutional convention and write a liberal constitution.
 2. Otto von Bismarck
 - King Wilhelm needs support with new parliament
 -Chooses Otto von Bismarck a conservative Junker to be his Prime Minister
 -Bismarck master of realpolitik- “the politics of reality” tough power politics with no
room for idealism
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- Bismarck declares he will rule without the consent of parliament and without a legal budget
-1864 Prussia forms and alliance with Austria and goes to war with Denmark- gains two border
provinces
 3. Seven Weeks War
 -Prussia provokes Austria into war.
 - Prussia wins devastating victory and humiliates Austria.
 - Prussia takes control of Northern Germany
 4. Franco Prussian War
 - By 1867 only a few southern German states not under Prussian Control
 - S. Germans mainly Catholic while Prussians Protestant
 -Bismarck thinks war with France will rally the South to their side
 -Prussia lies about France until France finally declares war in 1870
 - Franco-Prussian war stirs up Nationalist feelings in the South- They join Prussia in 1871.

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