AP Music Theory Voice Leading Chapter 5 – The Melodic Line Rhythm should be simple Notes in the melody should belong to the chord harmonizing it Melody should be conjunct (stepwise motion) Shape of the melody should be clear but simple with a single focal point or highest note to the melody Leaps: Avoid augmented intervals, 7ths and intervals larger than an octave Diminished intervals used if melody changes direction by step immediately after the interval Melodic interval larger than a Perfect 4th is both approached and left in the opposite direction Smaller leaps used consecutively in the same direction should outline a triad Tendency tones 7th degree of the scale moves up to the 1st degree unless they are descending in a scale 1-7-6-5 The 4th scale degree often moved down to the 3rd scale degree Notating Chords Stems in soprano and tenor voice always go up Stems in the alto and bass voice always go down The alto voice stays within the confines of the treble clef in a reduced score The tenor voice always stays within the confines of the bass clef in a reduced score Voicing a single triad Close structure – lass than an octave between soprano and tenor voice Open structure – more than an octave between the soprano and bass voice Example 5-5 – illustrates spacing in hymn style Do not allow any part to cross above the soprano or below the bass Alto and tenor parts can cross briefly if there is a musical reason but generally not done at this level. Example 5-7 Spacing should remain within an octave for adjacent parts excluding the bass Can be more than an octave between the tenor and bass voice Voice Movement Static is unmoving repeating the same notes Oblique is one voice moving and the other remaining still Similar – both voices moving in the same unequal direction Contrary – both voices moving in the opposite direction Parallel – both voices moving in the same direction equally Parallel 5ths and octaves are avoided completely! Consecutive 5th and octaves are also avoided Octaves by contrary motion are found at cadences and are ok Example 5-14 Unequal 5ths – dim 5th to a Perfect 5th are unacceptable! Direct 5ths and Octaves – when soprano and bass parts move in the same direction into a P5 or P8 with a leap in the soprano part and are unacceptable Example 5-17 shows instrumental music in which the 5th are hidden by accompanying figures Chapter 6 – Root position Part Writing Root Position writing with repeated roots 4 part Texture All members of the triad are present The root is always doubled The leading tone (7th degree) is never doubled! 3 part textures The 5th of the triad is often omitted The final I chord may have tripled root An incomplete triad will have the root doubled The leading tone(7th degree) is never doubled! Root position part writing with roots a 4th (5th) apart. Four Part Textures Method ONE Keep the common tone of both chords in the same voice Upper parts move by step in the same direction Step Up if the if root movement is a P5 down Step Down if the root movement is a P5 up Four Part Textures Method TWO Move all three upper parts in the same direction with no leap larger than a third Step UP if the root movement is a P5 down or P4 up Step DOWN if the root movement is a P5 up or a P4 down If the leading tone is in an inner voice (alto/tenor) it leaps down to the 5th scale degree Four Part Textures Method THREE Useful for changing between close and open structures Keep the common tone of both chords in the same voice The voice that has the 3rd in the first chord must leap to the 3rd in the second chord Remaining voice moves by step Leading tone can leap up to the 3rd scale degree in the inner voices (alto/tenor). Three Part Textures Remember that each chord must contain at least a root and a 3rd Watch out for spacing issues and parallel movement of 5ths and Octaves. Aim for smooth voice leading instead of complete chords. Root Position Part Writing with Roots a 3rd (6th apart) Four Part Textures The two upper voices that have tones in common with the second chord remain stationary The remaining voice moves by step Step UP for roots that go down 3rd (I-vi) Step DOWN for roots that go up a 3rd (I – iii) Three Part Textures In root movement that goes UP do not omit the 5th of the second chord Root Position Part Writing with Roots a 2nd (7th) apart Four Part Textures These chords have no tones in common so every part must move Doubled Root If bass moves up upper voices move down to the next chord tone If bass moves down the upper voices move up to the next chord tone Deceptive Progression (V-vi or V-VI) Example 6-10 Leading tone moves parallel with the bass up to tonic Other two voices move down contrary to the bass to the next chord tone IN Major keys if the leading tone is in the inner voices (alto/tenor) it may move down by step to the 6th scale degree. This does not work in minor keys. You must resolve up to tonic creating a doubled 3rd. Three part textures Two scenarios Complete triad resolves to incomplete triad with a 3rd and two roots Incomplete triad (2 roots and a 3rd) to a complete triad. Resolve the 7th scale degree up to tonic except when in an inner voice in major keys where it can go down. Instrument Ranges and Transpositions See Appendix A in the back of your book Chapter 7 – Harmonic Progression Sequence – a pattern that is repeated in the same voice that begins on a different pitch class Tonal Sequence – will keep the pattern in a single key Real sequence (modulating sequence)– transposes the pattern to a new key Modified Sequence – neither tonal or real A sequence can be melodic, harmonic or both The difference between a real sequence and real imitation Example 7-3 One Common Sequence is the I-V-vi-iii-IV-I (Pachelbel’s Canon) Circle of Fifth’s Progression Roots by descending 5ths and or ascending 4ths If continued long enough you could run into a tritone Example 7-6 Often in connection with melodic sequences, popular music and jazz This is the most basic progression in tonal harmony Example 7-7 The V-I progression I-V-I or I-V7-I is the most essential element of a tonal work. The ii chord – ii – V – I Extending backwards in the circle of fifths from the V chord we have ii – V – I Many musical phrases contain a I-ii-V-I progression The vi chord vi – ii – V – I One more step backwards in the circle of fifths takes us to the vi chord In root position this pattern produces an ostinato (repeated) bass pattern heard in popular tunes The same progression in minor are almost always identical to major keys The iii chord iii – vi – ii – V – I Another 5th backwards brings us to the iii chord which is far removed from the tonic triad The actual iii chord is rarely used in major keys If the 3rd degree is used as a bass in major keys it is almost always associated with a I in first inversion, not a iii chord It does occur occasionally and always followed by a vi chord in major It is used more frequently in minor keys It can occasionally be used to harmonize a descending 1 – 7 – 6 soprano line. The vii chord Continuing back another 5th brings us to the vii chord The vii – iii is sometimes used in sequences but not common The vii chord acts as a substitute for the V chord If V and vii are next to each other, the V will follow the vii because V is stronger The most common use of vii is in first inversion between two positions of the tonic triad. I – vii6 – I6 or I6 – vii6 – I The vii6 is also useful in harmonizing a 6-7-1 soprano line I – IV – vii6 – I The IV chord The last chord in the progression is the IV chord It has three common functions IV proceeds to the I chord (a Plagal Cadence) More frequently IV is linked with the ii chord which can substitute for the IV – V/vii Predominant function It can be followed by ii as in IV – ii – V Common Exceptions V – vi (the deceptive cadence) iii – IV Differences in Minor Keys The Subtonic Chord (VII – III ) which sounds like a V – I (the VII sounding like a V and the III sounding like a I in the relative major) The v6 – iv6 (the minor v chord does not have a dominant function) Progressions Involving Seventh Chords Almost in every case seventh chords function in the same way as triads The only exception is the tonic seventh chord which in most cases is followed by a subdominant (IV) chord. Harmonizing a Melody In root position triads , do not use diminished triads First select the chords for the beginning and the last two or three chords 2nd – write out the possibilities for each remaining chord (remember that every melody note can serve as the root, 3rd or 5th ) Again avoid diminished chords (vii) 3rd – compose the rest of the bass line to create a good harmonic progression avoiding parallel or direct 5ths and Octaves 4th – after finishing the bass line, fill in the two remaining voices following the guidelines already learned.