060712 GOST 1581 presentation_Rev 1

Report
Lafarge Oil & Gas
Global Well Cement Standards
Russian GOST 1581-96
by Larisa Markina, Bill Carruthers, Gregory Bernstein
API Meeting
June 2012
CEMENT
API
GOST
American Petroleum Institute (API) is
an American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) accredited standards
organization. API partners with the
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) in
development of well cement
standards and other matters
GOST standards are administered by
the Euro-Asian Council for
Standardization, Metrology and
Certification (EASC). The national
standards of Russia are GOST R
managed by The Federal Agency on
Technical Regulating and Metrology
(Rosstandard)
Used worldwide
GOST 1581-96 was adopted by the
relevant ministries and state agencies
in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and
Uzbekistan
Main standard for well cements
ANSI/API 10A (ISO 10426)
Main standard for well cements:
GOST 1581-96
Test methods for I-G and I-H
GOST 26798.2-96
GOST 1581-96 history

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

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Well cements in Russia were first produced in the 1920s (Novorossijsk Cement
Plants). Until 1940s well cements met specific customer needs (set time,
strength etc) without any common standard
The first common standard for well cement was drafted and approved in 1942.
GOST 1581-42 lasted without significant changes until 1963 and:
 Specified 2 neat well cements for low and high temperature wells
 Based on the properties of Novorossijsk cement (standard at that time)
Well cement standards were developed jointly by the cement industry and the
oil-gas industry in the relevant academic, technical and standard institutes
By the 1950-60s the industry realized that just 2 neat cements did not provide
sufficient flexibility to deal with the varied well conditions. At this time GOST
deviated from API methodology by introducing composite cements
 GOST1581-63 introduced cements with additives – up to 15% of the
“active” additives and 10% “inert” additive
In the 1970s industry advanced further and in addition to neat and blended
cements introduced lightweight, heavy weight and other special cements. Most
of these cements were added to the 1996 standard edition
The last modification is GOST 1581-96 introduced on October 1, 1998 as a state
standard of the Russian Federation by Decision of Gosstroy of Russia dated
April 10, 1998 № 18-31
3
GOST Class 1G and 1H cements are close to API10A Class G and H. However,
GOST Class 2 and Class 3 cements allow additives. GOST specifies lightweight
and heavyweight cement systems - such cements are not specified by API
ANSI/API 10A
GOST 1581-96
Only neat cements allowed (clinker
and gypsum)
Allows a wide range of cements – neat,
blended, lightweight and other
5 classes of neat cement with no
additives of any kind (A, B, C, G, H).
Class I with no additives
The set-modifying agents can be
interground or blended during
manufacture of Class D cement
Class IG no additives. Tests at 0.44
water to cement ratio
Class IH no additives. Tests at 0.38
water to cement ratio
Class II cement with mineral additives
Class III with the additives regulating
cement slurry density
Class IIIA is the lightweight cement
(allows weight control additives)
Class IIIB is the heavyweight cement
GOST 1581-96 Classification of standard well cements
Section 4. Classification
4.1 As to material composition the cements are subdivided into types as follows:
I — well Portland cement without additives;
I-G — well Portland cement without additives with normalized requirements with
water/cement ratio equal to 0.44 [1];
I-H — well Portland cement without additives with normalized requirements with
water/cement ratio equal to 0.38 [1];
II — well Portland cement with mineral additives;
III — well Portland cement with special additives, regulating cement mortar density.
4.2 As to cement mortar density the cements type III are subdivided as follows:
-lightened (Об);
-weighted (Ут).
4.3 As to application temperature the cements types I, II and III are subdivided into
cements, intended for:
- low and normal temperatures (15—50) °С;
- moderate temperatures (51—100) °С;
- higher temperatures (101—150) °С.
4.4 As to sulfate resistance the cements are subdivided into:
а) types I, II, III
- normal (there are no requirements for sulfate resistance);
- sulfate resistant (СС);
b) types I-G and I-H
- high sulfate resistance (СС-1);
- moderate sulfate resistance (СС-2).
GOST 1581-96 Additive Requirements
5.1.3 Requirements for cement chemical parameters are given in table 5.
Table 1
In percent
Additive content
Cement
type
Clinker content
Mineral additive
Special additive —
lightening (including
natural pozzolanic) or
weighting
I
I-G
I-H
100
Not permitted
II
80-94
6-20*
—
III
30-89
—
11-70
__________
*Additives of sedimentary origin shall not be in amount more than 10 % of cement mass
Note — Material composition is characterized by contents of Portland
cement clinker and additives disregarding gypsum stone, added over 100 %
of cement mass
GOST 1581-96 Physical Characteristics
Table 2
Index description
Value for cement at applications temperatures
low and normal
moderate and higher
type I, type III- type I, II type III-06 type IIIII
0б
Ут
1 Bending strength,
MPa, no less than, in age:
1 day
—
—
3.5
—
—
2 days
2.7
0.7
—
1.0
2.0
2 Fineness of grinding *- remains in sieve with mesh
№ 008 in accordance with GOST
6613,
%, no more than
12.0
10.0
15.0
12,0
12.0
- specific surface area,
m2/kg, no less than
270
—
250
—
230
3 Bleeding, ml, no more than
8.7
7.5
8.7
7.5
10.0
4 Cement mortar flow,
mm, no less than for
cement:
- non-plasticized
200
—
200
—
—
- plasticized
220
—
220
—
—
5 Time of thickening to
consistency 30 Bс**, min,
no less than
90
* It is allowed to determine fineness of grinding for cement type I only in accordance with
specific surface area, and for cement types I and III- Ут — only according to remains in
sieve
**Bearden units of consistency
Table 4
GOST 1581-96 Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Class 1G and 1H (two
GOST cement types directly equivalent to API Class G and Class H)
Index description
Value for cement types I-G and I-H
no less than
no more than
Compressive strength, MPa, after 8 hours of
hardening at temperature:
38° С
2.1
60° С
10.3
Bleeding, ml
-
3.5
Cement mortar consistency after 15 —30 min
of test mode, Вс
Time of thickening to consistency 100 Вс,
min
-
30
90
120
Index description
Value for cement type
II
III
I-G and I-H
I
Loss of ignition, no more than
5.0
Mass concentration of insoluble residue, no more
than
5.00
-
3.0
0.75
Mass concentration of sulphur oxide(VI) SO3
no less than
1.5
no more than
3.5
—
3.0
Mass concentration of chlorine- ion С1 , no more
0,10
than
Mass concentration of alkaline oxides’ sum in
conversion to Na2O, no more than
—
0.75
Table 4
GOST 1581-96 Requirements for materials - clinker
5.2 Requirements for materials
5.2.1 As to chemical composition Portland cement clinker shall
correspond to technological regulations. Mass concentration of magnesium
oxide MgO in the clinker shall not be more than 5.0 %.
Mineralogical composition of the clinker for sulphate-resistant well
cements shall correspond to the values, given in table 6.
Table 6
In percent
Index description
Value for clinker cement type and
sulphate resistance
I, II, III
I-G and I –Н
СС
CC-I
СС-2
Content of tricalcium silicate C3S:
no less than
no more than
Content of tricalcium aluminate С3А,
—
—
no more than
5
Sum of tricalcium aluminate С3А and tetracalcium
22
alumoferrite C4AF, no more than
* Sum of tetracalcium alumoferrite and double content of tricalcium aluminate
48
65
48
58
3
24
8
—
Table 3
Table 4
GOST 1581-96 Requirements for materials – gypsum and additives
5.2.2 Gypsum stone – in accordance with GOST 4013. It is allowed to
use other materials, containing calcium sulphate, in accordance with
corresponding normative documents.
5.2.3 Mineral additives — in accordance with corresponding normative
documents.
5.2.4 Special additives (lightening and weighting), regulating cement
mortar density, — in accordance with corresponding normative documents.
Lightening and weighting additives shall provide production of the cement
with density, indicated in table 3, and shall not cause destruction and
corrosion of cement stone.
5.2.5 Technological additives, regulating main well-technical properties
of the cement, and technological additives, used for grinding intensification,
— in accordance with corresponding normative documents.
Content of the additives added to cement during grinding shall not
exceed the values, mentioned in table 7
Table 7
In percent of cement mass
Value for additives (in conversion to additive dry substance)
Cement
type
earlystrength
accelerator
retarding
agent
plasticizing
agent
I, II, III
0.5
0.3
0.5
*Organic additives shall not be more than 0.15 %
hydrophobic
agent
water
retaining
Grinding
intensifier,
including
organic
0.5
1.5
1.00
Table 3
Value of cement mortar density for cement type III, g/cm3
lightened
weighted
designation of
density
designation of
average density
±0.04
average density
064
1.40
Ут0
065
1.50
Ут1
066
1.60
Ут2
УтЗ
density
±0.04
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
GOST 26798.2-96 1G and 1H Well cements test methods
3.8.2 Procedure of cement mortar preparation
Cement sample shall be prepared in accordance with GOST 26798.1.
Mass of cement and water sample, used for cement mortar preparation,
shall correspond to the values, indicated in table 2.
Table 2
Cement type
I-G
I-H
Water/cement ratio
W/C
Water mass
0.44
0.38
349
327
mв, g
Cement sample mass, g, for one
mixing in determining the time of
thickening, dehydration and
strength
792
860
Water is poured into container, which shall be placed on mixer base. It is
required to set rotation speed equal to (4000±200) rpm.
Evenly within 15 sec it is required to pour cement sample into container,
to cover container with lid and to switch to rotation speed (12000 ± 500) rpm,
mixing shall continue within (35±1) sec.
GOST 26798.2-96 1G and 1H Well cements test methods
4 Determination of consistency and time of thickening
4.1 Control equipment
Consistency meter, working under higher pressure. Consistency meter is
a hermetic chamber, which includes cylindrical container for cement mortar
with blade mixing device. Space between container and chamber walls shall
be filled with oil of viscosity from 5 up to 100 Bс (oil bath). Rotation speed
of container with cement mortar is (150±15) rpm.
Consistency meter shall be equipped with heater, providing an oil bath
temperature rise at a rate of 2.8 °С/min, equipment for an oil bath
temperature and cement motor measuring and regulation with error no more
than ± 1.7 °С, timer with error no more than ± 30 s/hr , as well as
potentiometric device for determining value of cement mortar consistency.
4.2 Test preparation and testing
4.2.1 Cement mortar, prepared in accordance with 3.8.2, shall be poured
into cylindrical container. During filling a container the cement mortar shall
be slightly mixed in order to prevent its disintegration.
4.2.2 Container with cement mortar shall be placed in hermetic chamber
and in accordance with the instruction, enclosed to consistency meter, it is
required to perform further operations.
4.2.3 Time from completion of cement mortar mixing in accordance with
3.8.2 till start of test mode shall be equal to 5 min ± 15 sec
4.2.4 Testing shall be performed in mode in accordance with tables 3 and
4.
4.2.5 After 15—30 min of test mode in indications of device it is
required to determine cement mortar consistency, which value shall
correspond to the requirements of GOST 1581.
4.2.6 Time of cement mortar thickening is considered a time from start of
test mode till moment when cement mortar reaches consistency 100 Bс.
GOST 26798.2-96 Consistometer schedule (compares with API schedule 5)
Table 3
Preliminary warming up
Pressure, Temperature Conditions of
°С,
reaching
MPa
a test mode
27±1
6.9 ± 0.7
Test mode
Operation
Time of
Pressure,
reaching
MPa
operation
parameters,
min
28±1
Table 4
parameters
Temperature
°С,
52±1
35.б±0.7
Table 4
Time, min
Pressure, MPa,
Temperature, °С,
±0.7
±1
0
6.9
27
2
9.0
28
4
11.1
30
6
13.1
32
8
15.2
34
10
17.3
36
12
19.3
37
14
21.4
39
16
23.4
41
18
25.5
43
20
27.6
44
22
29.6
46
24
31.7
48
26
33.8
50
28
35.6
52
Summary

Two methodologies exist in standardization of the well cements:
 Neat cement approach which does not allow any additives (API)
 Combination of neat and blended cement standards (GOST)

The neat cement (API) methodology restricts innovation and flexibility to meet various
customer needs at a cement plant since it allows no additives – while technologies of
blending, inter-grinding and selection of advanced ingredients to control properties of the
clinker-cement systems represent perhaps the core modern expertise of Lafarge

On the other hand, a standard with too much ambiguity in cement chemical composition
and properties would cause challenges to the well service companies in slurry designs

We recommend for the future API approach to combine the advantages of both
methodologies. For example a standard may – as GOST – allow considerable range of the
blended cement products, as long as the quality targets are well defined. GOST may
consider extending the neat cements range as API
1
4
Authors:
Larisa Markina
Senior Project Manager – Lafarge Oil & Gas –Russia
[email protected]
Tel: +7(495) 926 71 31 Ext. 6584
Bill Carruthers
Lafarge Technical Director – Lafarge Oil & Gas
[email protected]
Tel: 936-447-4959
Gregory Bernstein
Business Development Director – Lafarge Oil & Gas
[email protected]
Tel: 703-338-2671

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