Foreign Affairs in the Young Nation Chapter 12

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Foreign Affairs in the Young Nation
Chapter 12
The Great Seal
The bald
eagle is a
symbol of
national
power.
In one talon, the
eagle holds an
olive branch of
peace.
In one talon, the
eagle holds
arrows of war
The Great Seal
The arrows
and olive
branches
are perfect
symbols of
two foreign
policy
choices.
Foreign Policy
• Guidelines for how a country handles political
and economic interactions with other
countries.
Threats to the Young Nation
• To the north
– Canada was still controlled by Britain
• To the West
– British troops still occupied the Ohio Valley
– Spain controlled Louisiana
• To the South
– Spain controlled Florida
Threats to the Young Nation
• International Threats
– The French Revolution
– War between France and England
• During the American Revolution, America had signed an
alliance with France. That meant that we promised to
help them in times of war.
Foreign Affairs in a Young Nation
• George Washington defined our nation’s first
foreign policy.
– Washington announced a policy of neutrality.
• Neutrality = a policy of not choosing sides in a war or
dispute between other countries.
– Washington also set a policy of isolationism
• Isolationism = a policy of avoiding political or military
agreements with other countries
• Washington advised that the US “steer clear of
permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign
world.”
Adam’s Dilemma of Maintaining
Neutrality
• It was often hard to stay neutral (it’s human
nature for us to want to take sides on matters
– we are opinionated creatures).
• France made it difficult for President Adams to
maintain a policy of neutrality.
The Jay Treaty
• Remember, the English refused to abandon
their forts in the Ohio Valley.
• France hoped this conflict would lead to war
between the United States and Britain.
• However, the United States was determined to
avoid war.
Ohio Valley
The Jay Treaty
• Washington sent Chief Justice (of the Supreme
Court) John Jay to London to make peace with
the British.
• Under the terms of the Jay Treaty, England
agreed to pull their troops out of the Ohio
Valley.
The Jay Treaty
• French officials viewed the Jay Treaty as a
betrayal by the United States.
• In July 1796, the French navy began seizing
American merchant ships headed for Britain.
• The French would seize a total of 316
American ships in the next year.
The XYZ Affair
• Adams sent representatives
to France to end the attacks
on American ships.
• The representatives were
not met by the foreign
minister but by secret
agents (who went by code
names of X, Y, and Z).
• These secret agents of the
French wanted a large sum
of money (tribute) and said
only after the Americans
paid that money, could they
begin peace talks.
The XYZ Affair
• Americans were outraged!
• Americans began preparing for war with
France.
– The slogan: Millions for defense but not one cent
for tribute.
• Congress authorize American warships and
privately owned ships, called privateers, to
launch a “half-war” on the seas.
The XYZ Affair
• This meant that these vessels could capture
French ships.
– During this time, Americans seized over 80 French
ships.
• During war fever, Adams became extremely
popular. The people wanted war with France,
but Adams wasn’t sure if that was best for the
country.
Adams Pursues Peace
• Adams decided to
resend a peace mission
to France in February
1799.
• Napoleon was eager to
make peace with both
the USA and Britain.
PEACE
• Napoleon (France) agreed to…
– Stop seizing American ships
– Release captured soldiers/sailors
– End the USA / France alliance from 1778
• America agreed to…
– Not go to war with France
– Not ask France to pay for all the ships they had
seized.
Consequences for Adams
• Choosing peace cost Adams his popularity.
• He did not regret it though and was proud to
leave the presidency having started no wars
and establishing no alliances.
• When you finish writing, open to page 164165 and read independently.
Jefferson & The Pirates
• By 1803, France and England were back at
war!
• Both sides began seizing American ships that
were headed to do business with their enemy.
Impressment
• The British began impressing, or kidnapping,
American sailors to serve in the British Army.
– The British claimed that these men were actually
deserters of the British Army.
– This may have been true in very few cases, but
most were American sailors.
Piracy
• American ships faced a different threat from
the Barbary States of North Africa: Piracy.
– Piracy is robbery at sea
• To avoid being attacked by pirates, both
Washington and Adams paid tributes to
Barbary State rulers in exchange for safety of
American goods and sailors
More Tribute
• By the time Jefferson became president, we
had spent $2 million in tributes and now the
Barbary States wanted MORE!
• The Barbary States even declared war on the
USA.
• Jefferson found himself in a tough situation.
• When you finish writing, open to page 167
Independent Practice
1. Read Section 12.6
2. Take a comprehension constructor from the
front table to complete
4 Square
Vocabulary
Summary
Connections
Visualize
Dilemma 3: What Should
President Madison Do To Protect
Sailors and Settlers?
Madison Takes Office
• Madison took office in 1809.
• The British and the French were still seizing
American Ships at sea.
• Madison offered France and Britain a deal:
If you stop seizing our ships, we’ll stop trading with
your enemy.
Cutting off Trade
• Napoleon took Madison up on this deal.
– But he also secretly told his navy to continue to
seize American ships.
• Madison cut off all trade with Britain.
• That didn’t stop the British, they continued to
seize ships and impress American sailors.
War?
• New Englanders and Federalists opposed
going to war with Britain.
• Southerners and Westerners supported going
to war.
– They resented the impressment of American
sailors.
– They accused the British of stirring up trouble
among the Native Americans in the states and
territories to the northwest.
Trouble with Indians
• Trouble was growing as settlers began moving
further west onto Indian lands.
• Two Shawnee Indians, a chief named
Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet – tried
to fight back by uniting Indian tribes.
The War of 1812
CAUSES
The War
RESULTS
Results of the War of 1812
• Both sides claimed victory but neither really won
the war of 1812.
• There were four important effects:
1. Indian resistance in the Northwest weakened after
the death of Tecumseh
2. National pride surged
3. The Federalists were badly damaged by their
opposition to the war and never recovered
4. Two of the war’s hero’s (William Henry Harrison and
Andrew Jackson) would later be elected president.
What should President Monroe do to
Support the New Latin American
Nations
• In 1817, colonial peoples from Mexico to the
tip of South America were rising up against
Spain.
• In 1821, Mexico won independence from
Spain
• By 1825, the last of Spanish troops had been
driven out of South America.
New Latin American Nations
• Many Americans were excited about the
former Spanish colonies gaining their
independence.
• The British were also happy about this
independence because Spain had not allowed
other nations to trade with its colonies.
• Now that these nations were free from
Spanish rule, they could trade with who ever
they wanted to.
New Latin American Nations
• Other European leaders and nations were not
pleased.
• Some even talked of helping Spain recover
their lost colonies.
• In 1823, Britain asked the USA to tell these
other European nations to leave Latin America
alone
– Latin American is Mexico down to the tip of South
America.
Monroe Doctrine
• Issued in 1823
• Monroe warned European countries not to
interfere in the Western Hemisphere, stating
"that the American continents. . .are
henceforth not to be considered as subjects
for future colonization by any European
powers."
• The Monroe Doctrine became a cornerstone
of future U.S. foreign policy.

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