Foreign Affairs in the Young Nation Chapter 12 The Great Seal The bald eagle is a symbol of national power. In one talon, the eagle holds an olive branch of peace. In one talon, the eagle holds arrows of war The Great Seal The arrows and olive branches are perfect symbols of two foreign policy choices. Foreign Policy • Guidelines for how a country handles political and economic interactions with other countries. Threats to the Young Nation • To the north – Canada was still controlled by Britain • To the West – British troops still occupied the Ohio Valley – Spain controlled Louisiana • To the South – Spain controlled Florida Threats to the Young Nation • International Threats – The French Revolution – War between France and England • During the American Revolution, America had signed an alliance with France. That meant that we promised to help them in times of war. Foreign Affairs in a Young Nation • George Washington defined our nation’s first foreign policy. – Washington announced a policy of neutrality. • Neutrality = a policy of not choosing sides in a war or dispute between other countries. – Washington also set a policy of isolationism • Isolationism = a policy of avoiding political or military agreements with other countries • Washington advised that the US “steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.” Adam’s Dilemma of Maintaining Neutrality • It was often hard to stay neutral (it’s human nature for us to want to take sides on matters – we are opinionated creatures). • France made it difficult for President Adams to maintain a policy of neutrality. The Jay Treaty • Remember, the English refused to abandon their forts in the Ohio Valley. • France hoped this conflict would lead to war between the United States and Britain. • However, the United States was determined to avoid war. Ohio Valley The Jay Treaty • Washington sent Chief Justice (of the Supreme Court) John Jay to London to make peace with the British. • Under the terms of the Jay Treaty, England agreed to pull their troops out of the Ohio Valley. The Jay Treaty • French officials viewed the Jay Treaty as a betrayal by the United States. • In July 1796, the French navy began seizing American merchant ships headed for Britain. • The French would seize a total of 316 American ships in the next year. The XYZ Affair • Adams sent representatives to France to end the attacks on American ships. • The representatives were not met by the foreign minister but by secret agents (who went by code names of X, Y, and Z). • These secret agents of the French wanted a large sum of money (tribute) and said only after the Americans paid that money, could they begin peace talks. The XYZ Affair • Americans were outraged! • Americans began preparing for war with France. – The slogan: Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute. • Congress authorize American warships and privately owned ships, called privateers, to launch a “half-war” on the seas. The XYZ Affair • This meant that these vessels could capture French ships. – During this time, Americans seized over 80 French ships. • During war fever, Adams became extremely popular. The people wanted war with France, but Adams wasn’t sure if that was best for the country. Adams Pursues Peace • Adams decided to resend a peace mission to France in February 1799. • Napoleon was eager to make peace with both the USA and Britain. PEACE • Napoleon (France) agreed to… – Stop seizing American ships – Release captured soldiers/sailors – End the USA / France alliance from 1778 • America agreed to… – Not go to war with France – Not ask France to pay for all the ships they had seized. Consequences for Adams • Choosing peace cost Adams his popularity. • He did not regret it though and was proud to leave the presidency having started no wars and establishing no alliances. • When you finish writing, open to page 164165 and read independently. Jefferson & The Pirates • By 1803, France and England were back at war! • Both sides began seizing American ships that were headed to do business with their enemy. Impressment • The British began impressing, or kidnapping, American sailors to serve in the British Army. – The British claimed that these men were actually deserters of the British Army. – This may have been true in very few cases, but most were American sailors. Piracy • American ships faced a different threat from the Barbary States of North Africa: Piracy. – Piracy is robbery at sea • To avoid being attacked by pirates, both Washington and Adams paid tributes to Barbary State rulers in exchange for safety of American goods and sailors More Tribute • By the time Jefferson became president, we had spent $2 million in tributes and now the Barbary States wanted MORE! • The Barbary States even declared war on the USA. • Jefferson found himself in a tough situation. • When you finish writing, open to page 167 Independent Practice 1. Read Section 12.6 2. Take a comprehension constructor from the front table to complete 4 Square Vocabulary Summary Connections Visualize Dilemma 3: What Should President Madison Do To Protect Sailors and Settlers? Madison Takes Office • Madison took office in 1809. • The British and the French were still seizing American Ships at sea. • Madison offered France and Britain a deal: If you stop seizing our ships, we’ll stop trading with your enemy. Cutting off Trade • Napoleon took Madison up on this deal. – But he also secretly told his navy to continue to seize American ships. • Madison cut off all trade with Britain. • That didn’t stop the British, they continued to seize ships and impress American sailors. War? • New Englanders and Federalists opposed going to war with Britain. • Southerners and Westerners supported going to war. – They resented the impressment of American sailors. – They accused the British of stirring up trouble among the Native Americans in the states and territories to the northwest. Trouble with Indians • Trouble was growing as settlers began moving further west onto Indian lands. • Two Shawnee Indians, a chief named Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet – tried to fight back by uniting Indian tribes. The War of 1812 CAUSES The War RESULTS Results of the War of 1812 • Both sides claimed victory but neither really won the war of 1812. • There were four important effects: 1. Indian resistance in the Northwest weakened after the death of Tecumseh 2. National pride surged 3. The Federalists were badly damaged by their opposition to the war and never recovered 4. Two of the war’s hero’s (William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson) would later be elected president. What should President Monroe do to Support the New Latin American Nations • In 1817, colonial peoples from Mexico to the tip of South America were rising up against Spain. • In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain • By 1825, the last of Spanish troops had been driven out of South America. New Latin American Nations • Many Americans were excited about the former Spanish colonies gaining their independence. • The British were also happy about this independence because Spain had not allowed other nations to trade with its colonies. • Now that these nations were free from Spanish rule, they could trade with who ever they wanted to. New Latin American Nations • Other European leaders and nations were not pleased. • Some even talked of helping Spain recover their lost colonies. • In 1823, Britain asked the USA to tell these other European nations to leave Latin America alone – Latin American is Mexico down to the tip of South America. Monroe Doctrine • Issued in 1823 • Monroe warned European countries not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere, stating "that the American continents. . .are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." • The Monroe Doctrine became a cornerstone of future U.S. foreign policy.