Unit 4: The Early Republic 1789-1844 In this Unit… • Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic • Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era • Chapter 11: National and Regional Growth Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Lesson 1: Washington’s Presidency Essential Question What traditions and tensions first appeared in the early years of the new country? Vocabulary • John Jay: first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court • Cabinet: group of executive department heads that serve as the president’s chief advisors • Inaugurate: to formally swear in or induct into office • Precedent: an example that becomes standard practice • Tariff: tax on imported goods Key Question What were some challenges faced by George Washington? Washington’s New Government • First presidential election was held in 1789 • Washington was elected • The runner-up John Adams became vicepresident • Inauguration took place in New York City, the capital • Every action set a precedent • “His Excellency” vs. “Mr. President” Assembling a Cabinet • Needed to create departments to help run the country • • • • • State Treasury War Justice Postal Service • Heads of these departments are chosen by president • Called the cabinet The Nation’s Finances • WAR DEBTS • • • • • Other countries: Spain, Netherlands, France Citizens Soldiers By 1789- $52 million Other countries wouldn’t do business with a country who did not pay off debts • HAMILTON’S PROPOSALS • Pay off all war debt • Raise government income and profits • Create a national bank Building a Strong Government • TARIFFS • Taxes on imports • Encourages national business • Increased income • NATIONAL BANK • Kept money in a safe location • Could give loans • Could issue money Key Question What were some challenges faced by George Washington? Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Lesson 2: Challenges to the New Government Vocabulary • Battle of Fallen Timbers: 1794 battle between Native Americans and American forces • Treaty of Greenville: 1795 treaty in which 12 Native American tribes ceded control of much of Ohio and Indiana to the U.S. government • Whiskey Rebellion: 1794 protest against the government’s tax on whiskey by backcountry farmers • Jay’s Treaty: Agreement that ended the dispute with Britain over American shipping during the French Revolution • Pinckney’s Treaty: 1795 treaty with Spain allowing U.S. commercial use of the Mississippi River Key Question How did Washington establish authority at home and avoid wars abroad? Problems at Home • • • • • Nation needed peace Trouble between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River Spain, Britain, the U.S. and Native Americans all claimed land Battles in the Northwest Territory August 20, 1794 • • • • • • 2,000 Native Americans meet 1,000 American troops In Ohio Native Americans were defeated Called the Battle of Fallen Timbers Native Americans knew they had lost the Northwest Territory 12 troops signed the Treaty of Greenville that gave up their land to the U.S. Problems at Home • Washington put a tax on whiskey • Farmers were furious • 1794 Whiskey Rebellion occurred • • • • Pennsylvania 13,000 soldiers put down the rebellion Rebels fled Proved Washington could enforce laws Problems Abroad • America was still very involved with Europe • Events in Europe had effects in America • FRENCH REVOLUTION • • • • • • 1789 Financial problems led to rebellions People wanted freedom and equality like America Executed the king and queen Britain, Holland, and Spain joined the war against the revolution What should the U.S. do? • • • • France had helped during our revolution Britain was America’s best trading partner U.S. remained neutral Britain began to seize cargo from American ships Problems Abroad • Jay’s Treaty • Britain agreed to pay damages from cargo ships • Britain left the Ohio River Valley but still kept its fur trade in America • Many frontier settlers were angry • Pinckney’s Treaty • Americans could use Mississippi River • U.S. goods could be stored in New Orleans • U.S. and Spain agreed on a border for Florida • Americans began to feel safer because issues abroad were being taken care of Key Question How did Washington establish authority at home and avoid wars abroad? Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Lesson 3: The Federalists in Charge Vocabulary • John Adams: Second President of the United States • Alien and Sedition Acts: Series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants • States’ rights: Idea that the states have certain rights that the federal government cannot overrule • Nullification: idea that a state could cancel a federal law within a state • Foreign Policy: Relations with the governments of other nations • Political Party: Group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government • Aliens: Immigrants who are not yet citizens • Sedition: Stirring up rebellion against a government Key Question How did Federalists dominate politics under President John Adams? Washington Retires • Washington decided that 8 years in office (2 terms) was enough • As President, Washington tried to promote national unity • Many criticized his decision to remain neutral in the French Revolution • Washington’s Final Concerns • Dealt with foreign policy • Advised nation to remain neutral and avoid permanent alliances • Cautioned against letting political differences divide the nation • At the end of Washington’s terms, Americans were very divided • Strong Central Government vs. Weak Central Government Growth of Political Parties • Differences led to creation of political parties • Thomas Jefferson and John Madison led the Democratic-Republican Party • Emphasis on democracy and republican system • Limited power of national government • Strict interpretation • Farmers and workers supported this party • Today is the Democratic Party • Alexander Hamilton led the Federalist Party • Belief in Strong National Government • Loose interpretation • Merchants and manufacturers supported this party • Based off of the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution John Adams’s Administration • Adams chosen as 2nd president • Jefferson became VP • Issues with France • Washington left with strong tensions • France seized and harassed over 300 US ships Alien and Sedition Acts • New immigrants often supported Democratic-Republican party • Congress was dominated by Federalists • Passed the Alien and Sedition Acts • For immigrants that weren’t citizens yet • Could not get citizenship for 5-14 years • President could arrest or deport any suspicious immigrants during wartime • Sedition: stirring up rebellion against a government • This was also outlawed Peace with France • Adams opened talks up with France again • Agreed to stop all naval attacks • All ships could sail in peace Key Question How did Federalists dominate politics under President John Adams?