Unit 4: The Early Republic

Unit 4: The Early
In this Unit…
• Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic
• Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era
• Chapter 11: National and Regional Growth
Chapter 9:
Launching a New
Lesson 1: Washington’s Presidency
Essential Question
What traditions and tensions first appeared in the
early years of the new country?
• John Jay: first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme
• Cabinet: group of executive department heads that
serve as the president’s chief advisors
• Inaugurate: to formally swear in or induct into
• Precedent: an example that becomes standard
• Tariff: tax on imported goods
Key Question
What were some challenges faced by George
Washington’s New
• First presidential election was held in 1789
• Washington was elected
• The runner-up John Adams became vicepresident
• Inauguration took place in New York City, the
• Every action set a precedent
• “His Excellency” vs. “Mr. President”
Assembling a Cabinet
• Needed to create departments to help run the
Postal Service
• Heads of these departments are chosen by
• Called the cabinet
The Nation’s Finances
Other countries: Spain, Netherlands, France
By 1789- $52 million
Other countries wouldn’t do business with a country who did not
pay off debts
• Pay off all war debt
• Raise government income and profits
• Create a national bank
Building a Strong Government
• Taxes on imports
• Encourages national business
• Increased income
• Kept money in a safe location
• Could give loans
• Could issue money
Key Question
What were some challenges faced by George
Chapter 9:
Launching a New
Lesson 2: Challenges to the New Government
• Battle of Fallen Timbers: 1794 battle between Native Americans
and American forces
• Treaty of Greenville: 1795 treaty in which 12 Native American
tribes ceded control of much of Ohio and Indiana to the U.S.
• Whiskey Rebellion: 1794 protest against the government’s tax on
whiskey by backcountry farmers
• Jay’s Treaty: Agreement that ended the dispute with Britain over
American shipping during the French Revolution
• Pinckney’s Treaty: 1795 treaty with Spain allowing U.S. commercial
use of the Mississippi River
Key Question
How did Washington establish authority at home
and avoid wars abroad?
Problems at Home
Nation needed peace
Trouble between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River
Spain, Britain, the U.S. and Native Americans all claimed land
Battles in the Northwest Territory
August 20, 1794
2,000 Native Americans meet 1,000 American troops
In Ohio
Native Americans were defeated
Called the Battle of Fallen Timbers
Native Americans knew they had lost the Northwest Territory
12 troops signed the Treaty of Greenville that gave up their land
to the U.S.
Problems at Home
• Washington put a tax on whiskey
• Farmers were furious
• 1794 Whiskey Rebellion occurred
13,000 soldiers put down the rebellion
Rebels fled
Proved Washington could enforce laws
Problems Abroad
• America was still very involved with Europe
• Events in Europe had effects in America
Financial problems led to rebellions
People wanted freedom and equality like America
Executed the king and queen
Britain, Holland, and Spain joined the war against the revolution
What should the U.S. do?
France had helped during our revolution
Britain was America’s best trading partner
U.S. remained neutral
Britain began to seize cargo from American ships
Problems Abroad
• Jay’s Treaty
• Britain agreed to pay damages from cargo ships
• Britain left the Ohio River Valley but still kept its fur trade in
• Many frontier settlers were angry
• Pinckney’s Treaty
• Americans could use Mississippi River
• U.S. goods could be stored in New Orleans
• U.S. and Spain agreed on a border for Florida
• Americans began to feel safer because issues abroad were
being taken care of
Key Question
How did Washington establish authority at home
and avoid wars abroad?
Chapter 9:
Launching a New
Lesson 3: The Federalists in Charge
• John Adams: Second President of the United States
• Alien and Sedition Acts: Series of four laws enacted in 1798 to
reduce the political power of recent immigrants
• States’ rights: Idea that the states have certain rights that the
federal government cannot overrule
• Nullification: idea that a state could cancel a federal law within a
• Foreign Policy: Relations with the governments of other nations
• Political Party: Group of people that tries to promote its ideas and
influence government
• Aliens: Immigrants who are not yet citizens
• Sedition: Stirring up rebellion against a government
Key Question
How did Federalists dominate politics under
President John Adams?
Washington Retires
• Washington decided that 8 years in office (2 terms) was
• As President, Washington tried to promote national unity
• Many criticized his decision to remain neutral in the French
• Washington’s Final Concerns
• Dealt with foreign policy
• Advised nation to remain neutral and avoid permanent alliances
• Cautioned against letting political differences divide the nation
• At the end of Washington’s terms, Americans were very
• Strong Central Government vs. Weak Central Government
Growth of Political Parties
• Differences led to creation of political parties
• Thomas Jefferson and John Madison led the Democratic-Republican
• Emphasis on democracy and republican system
• Limited power of national government
• Strict interpretation
• Farmers and workers supported this party
• Today is the Democratic Party
• Alexander Hamilton led the Federalist Party
• Belief in Strong National Government
• Loose interpretation
• Merchants and manufacturers supported this party
• Based off of the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution
John Adams’s Administration
• Adams chosen as 2nd president
• Jefferson became VP
• Issues with France
• Washington left with strong tensions
• France seized and harassed over 300 US ships
Alien and Sedition Acts
• New immigrants often supported Democratic-Republican
• Congress was dominated by Federalists
• Passed the Alien and Sedition Acts
• For immigrants that weren’t citizens yet
• Could not get citizenship for 5-14 years
• President could arrest or deport any suspicious
immigrants during wartime
• Sedition: stirring up rebellion against a government
• This was also outlawed
Peace with France
• Adams opened talks up with France again
• Agreed to stop all naval attacks
• All ships could sail in peace
Key Question
How did Federalists dominate politics under
President John Adams?

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