1st Five Presidents PPT

Report
The
st
1
5 Presidents
A New Nation is formed
1. George Washington- 1789-1796
• Precedents:
• Whiskey Rebellion:
• Jay’s Treaty:
George Washington
1789-1796
(John Adams- VP)
1. Set precedents- an act for
others to follow (2 terms,
cabinet, farewell address, etc.became part of an unwritten
constitution)
2. Cabinet: advisors to help the
President make important
decisions
The President’s Cabinet:
Washington appointed four cabinet members:
3. Judiciary Act 1789- set up the
Supreme Court
1.
2.
3.
4.
Henry Knox- Secretary of War
Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State
Edmund Randolph- Attorney General
John Adams- Secretary of the Treasury
Hamilton and the National Debt
• Hamilton had to come up with a way to
pay off nation’s debt (war, supplies, army)
• Whiskey Tax: excise tax put on the liquor
• Caused frontiersmen to
rebel…Washington forced to march in
and show power of executive gov’t
• Bonds- issue to pay debt
• South has little debt
• If the capital was moved south, they
would agree to bonds
• 1790 bonds were issued and plans to
move capital began
Strengthening the Economy
1. Establish the Bank of the United States
(collect taxes, print money)
2. Give loans to farmers (help expand)
3. Establish tariffs (taxes on foreign goods)
Arguments For National Bank:
 Would build confidence in the
new nation
 Would raise $$
 Would free up state $$
Arguments Against National Bank:
 Constitution did not specifically say
“build a bank” (Strict Constructionist)
 Southern states paid debts already
 People resented new taxes and tariffs
Foreign Policy- Neutrality
1789- The French Revolution (fighting for
liberty)
• Jefferson (and most American’s)
supported this after the French
support Americans in their revolution
1793- France at war with Britain, Spain,
and Holland
 Washington issued a Declaration of
Neutrality
 Many wanted to continue trading with
British AND French
American soldiers fought
with French on their ships
against the British
250 American ships were
seized by the British
British gave weapons to
Native Americans in the
West
Washington sent John Jay
to England to come to an
agreement
Jay’s Treaty
1. Stop seizing ships
2. Most Favored Nation
Status (w/ Britain)
3. Stop arming Natives
French
Washington’s Farewell Address
1. Remain Neutral
2. No political parties
(causes sectionalism)
Election of 1796
John Adams VS Thomas Jefferson
2. John Adams 1797-1801
• XYZ Affair:
• Alien & Sedition Acts:
• Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions:
John Adams (Federalist)- 2nd President
1797-1801
XYZ AFFAIR:
o French angry over Jay’s Treaty
o Continued to seize ships
o Went to France to try to compromise
o XYZ (French diplomats) tried to bribe
American officials
o Americans became outraged with the
French
o Adam’s and the Federalists took advantage
of public opinion and began to build a Navy
Alien & Sedition Acts
 Distrust with Foreigners in general
 Needed to take votes away from
Democratic-Republicans (who were
seen as French-sympathizers)
 Adams issued the Alien & Sedition
Acts:
 Increased requirements from 5 to
14 years for citizenship
 Targeted French as anti-American;
could be fined & jailed
 Restricted newspapers from
writing scandalous reports; could
be fined & jailed for treason
Is this CONSTITUTIONAL?!?!?
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
- Thomas Jefferson (VP) and James
Madison wrote in secret
- Resolutions came out rejecting
the Alien and Sedition Acts
- declared that states had right
to refuse federal laws they feel
are unjust and declare them
unconstitutional
(nullification)
- Led to debate of Federal Power
VS States Rights
3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)
• Presidential Goals:
• Strict Constructionist:
• Louisiana Purchase:
• Embargo Act:
Election of 1800
• John Adams (federalist)
• Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr (dem.-reps.)
• Dead-lock between the Democratic-Republican candidates- went
to House of Representatives
• Alexander Hamilton (Federalist) swayed votes to Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)- 3rd President
1801-1809
Presidential Goals:
- Simplify presidency
- Eliminate excise tax
- Reduce size of army
- Reduce size of cabinet
UNTIL…..
Louisiana Purchase
1. Doubled size of U.S.
2. Unconstitutional
3. Gained control of
Mississippi River
Chesapeake-Leopard “Affair”
o June 21, 1807- Norfolk, VA
o British captain fired on the
USS Chesapeake
o 3 dead, 18 wounded
o Jefferson’s Response:
Embargo Act
The EMBARGO Act (1807)
The “OGRABME” Turtle
Jefferson responds with the Embargo Act
I know what to do! If we don’t
hatships
to do!to trade with
allow American
anyone, then we can get attacked!
American
Merchant
President
Thomas
Jefferson
True, but
that’s not
what I had in
mind!
I have a better
idea! Let’s go to
war!
4. James Madison (1809-1817)
• Marbury v. Madison:
• American System:
• War of 1812:
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established Judicial Review
Presidential Election of 1808
James Madison
Supported the American System
(created by Henry Clay):
1. Established a protective tariff
2. Reestablished the National Bank
(weakened under Jefferson)
3. Sponsored the development of
transportation systems, as well
as other internal developments
* The American System = Neutrality
The American System
would help:
NORTH = make goods
The North produce
more manufactured
goods
South and West raise
most of the grains,
meat, and cotton
needed in the North
SOUTH = RAISE CROPS
The Election of 1812
“War Hawks”
Henry Clay (KY)
John C. Calhoun (SC)
War of 1812…
the second American Revolution
Causes:
1. British impressment of US sailors
2. Conflict over trade
3. British STILL arming Native
Americans
Effects:
1. Foreign countries earn respect for US
2. NATIONALISM
3. US manufacturing increases
4. Native American resistance declines
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814
4. James Monroe (1817-1825)
• Era of Good Feelings:
• Monroe Doctrine:
James Monroe- (Democratic-Republican)- 5th President
1817-1825
Era of Good Feelings
In 1823- The Monroe Doctrine
was issued. It became the
foundation of US foreign
American is CHARGED after
policy in the Western
winning the War of 1812….
Hemisphere…
Big Pants are on…
…an end to European
colonization in the Western
Hemisphere.
…no intervention by Europe in
existing nations in the Western
hemisphere
A declaration that European
interference was “dangerous
to our peace and safety”
…a promise of noninterference
by the United States in
European affairs and European
colonies

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